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CHAPTER 14: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 14.1 Fetal Hemoglobin and Equilibrium hb + o2 double arrow hbo2 (protein hemoglobin reacts with oxygen, reversible) concentrations of reactants and products in a reaction at equilibrium are described by equlibrium constant K large K reaction lies far to the right at equilibrium (high concentration of products and low concentration of reactant) small value of K reaction at far left (low concentration of product high concentration of reactants) the value of K is a measure of how far a reaction proceeds—larger value of K, the more the reaction proceeds toward the products equilibrium constant for hb and o2 such that hb efficiently binds o2 at typical lung oxygen concentration, but can also release oxy under the appropriate condition any system at equilibrium (including hb-oxy system) acts to maintin that equilibrium if any of the concentrations of the react or products change, the reaction shifts to counteract that change high reactant reaction shift to right (equilibrium shifts to right) high O2 as blood flows thru lungs where oxy concentrat are high— hemoglobin binds oxy low reactant equilibrium (reaction) shifts to left) low oxy as blood flows out of lungs into muscles and organs (cuz they use oxy)—hemoglobin releases oxygen therefore, to maintain equilibrium, hb binds with oxy when the surrounding oxy concentration is high, but releases oxy when the surrounding oxy concentration is low. In this way, hb transports o2 from lungs to everywhere DIFFERENT FOR FETUS -fetus have their own circulatory system, mothers blood never flows into the fetus’s body and the fetus cannot get any air in the womb HbF (fetal hemoglobin) slightly diff than adult hemoglobin HbF + O2 double arrow HbFO2 Equilibrium constant for fetal hemoglobin is larger than equilibrium constant for adult hemoglobin (reaction tends to go farther in the direction of the product)
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Therefore , HbF loads oxygen at a lower oxygen concentration than does adult hemoglobin In the placenta, fetal blood flows in close proximity to maternal blood, without the two ever mixing. B/c of different equilbrium constants, the maternal hemoglobin unloads oxygen with the fetal hemoglobin then binds and carries into its own circulatory system 14.2 THE CONCEPT OF DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM reaction rate generally increases with increasing concentration (except zero order) and decreases with decreasing concentration) H2 + I2 double arrow 2HI Reversible reaction that can proceed in both the forward and reverse directions Begin with only H2 I2, what will initially happen? *H2 abd I2 will begin to react to for HI, however as H2 and I2 react their concentrations decrease, which in turn decreases the rate of the forward reaction. *At the same time, HI begins to form, and the concentration of HI increases, the reverse
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2009 for the course CHEMISTRY CHEM142 taught by Professor Metcalf during the Spring '09 term at UVA.

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