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CHAPTER 15 - Ch 15 ACIDS AND BASES 15.1 Heartburn-burning...

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Ch. 15 ACIDS AND BASES 15.1 Heartburn -burning sensation is esophagus, caused by hydrocholoric acid (HCl) from the stomach to kill microorganism and activate enzymes that break down food -HCL sometime back up out of stomach into esophagus (acid reflex) when HCl comes in contact with lining of esophagus, H+ ions irritate the esophageal tissues burning sensation -simpliest way to relieve heart burn is to swallow repeatedly (salivia contains bicarbonate ion aka base which neautralized the acid) -or take antacids like Tums, milk of magnesia (contains more base than saliva) -chronic problem—medical condition known as GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX disease (GERD) building blocks for ptotein amino ACIDS while the genetic code in DNA are BASES 15.2 THE NATURE OF ACIDS AND BASES ACIDS -sour, ability to dissolve many metals, ability to turn blue litmus paper red, ability to neutralize bases HCL (hydrochloric acid) common in labs -used to clean metal, prepare and process some foods, refine metal ores, main component of stomach acid H 2 SO 4 (Sulfuric Acid) HNO 3 (nitric acid) common in labs, major role in manufacture of fertilizer, explosives, dyes, glues sulfuric contained in most automobile batteries HC 2 H 3 O 2 (Acetic Acid) -found in homes as the active component of vinegar, produced in improperly stored wines -example of a CARBOXYLIC ACID, an acid containing the following grouping of atoms O H—O— C— Carboxylic acid -often found in substances derived from living orgamism other carboxylic acid: citric acid (lemons, lime), malic acid (found in apples, grapes, wine) BASES -bitter taste, slippery feel, ability to turn red litmus paper blue, ability to neutralize acids -because of bitterness less commonly found in food than acids
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-our dislike to the taste of bases probs comes from an evolutionary adaptation to warn us against alkaloids, organic bases found in plants that are often poisonous -coffee and chocolate does contain small bases -feel slippery b/c they react with oils on skin to form soaplike substances NAOH (Sodium hydroxide) and KOH (Potassium hydroxide) found at lab, used in processing petroleum and cotton, and in soap manufacturing NaHCO3 (Sodium bicarbonate)—baking soda, active infredient in many anacids 15.3 DEFINITION OF ACIDS AND BASES 3 DEFINITIONS; Arrhenius, Bronsted—Lowry, and Lewis (15.11) (1) THE ARRHENIUS DEFINITION 1880s by Swedish chemist arrhenium proposed the following definition acid: A substance that produced H+ in aq sol base: A subs that produced OH- in aq sol for example, under this definition, HCL is an acid because it produces H+ in aq solution HCL (aq) H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) -HCl covalent compoun, does not contain ions, but in water it ionizes to form H+ and Cl- ions H+ highly reactive, they bond with water molecules to form H30+ or HYDRONIUM ION -in water H+ always associates with H20 molecules with the general formula H(H2O) n + for ex H+ with 2 H2O = H(H2O) 2 + Chemist use H+ and H30+ interchangeable however to mean the same thing—an H+ ion has been solvated in water NaOH is base b/c it produces OH-
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