newGMAT����80���

NewGMAT����80���

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: GMAT M 2 Analysis of Issue Questions 80 M 2. “It is unrealistic to expect individual nations to make, independently, the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy. International leadership and worldwide cooperation are essential if we expect to protect the world’s energy resources for future generations.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� °Ðv¯ ªA 0 v .· ª A Z U ÿ. , Ð Z “·ª A ð; È ¶ªA À” 1. 2. 3. To conserve the energy is a world-wide project. No individual country is able to do it independently. It is unfair to let individual nations to make sacrifices while the others do not. The best and the most efficient way is the whole wolrd conserve the energy simultaneously and collectively. ’E 0 va · ª V 12 È ( g ¶ ª V á/h ª’ E U ’ E self consideration ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � : �� � � � �� “ +� � � a n °Ð vªV ¯ � pŁ + ��� � ��� function as the leader of the group. ¶ “ * �� ¶ “ *�� 5 ����� � � “+ � � � � � a n 2 :��� � � �� “ +�� ����� �� � � � � �� ���� ° Ð v ¯ª V 0 va · ª V ¨< ¶ “ * ��Æ % “ +�� R ��� nuclear weapons proliferation by the same token( � � � ) the problem of energy conservation transcends the national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will suffer.(sample � � � ) 3 R � � � + � � � J B E � � � � � � �� � � � � @ K B take positive action q Ł + � � « � � � � � � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � effective � � � ¶“* �� ¨ < Optional words: Sacrifice/ expense/ offering/ cost Conserve/ protect/ guard/ keep/ maintain Thesis sentence: To conserve the energy resources is a worldwide project; however, individual nations have been taking the responsibilities of energy conservation initiatively without international leadership. View1: International leadership and worldwide cooperation play important roles in the protection of energy resources. Evidence: OPEC is one of the best examples. OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is an international organization of eleven developing countries that are heavily reliant on oil revenues as their main source of income. Since oil revenues are so vital for the economic development of these nations, they aim to bring stability and harmony to the oil market by adjusting their oil output to help ensure a balance between supply and demand. In the long run, the stabilized out­put help to cease the problem of over­refining and over utilization of oil energy. View2: It is not idealistic to expect the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy independently. Factors other than international leadership and world wide cooperation have driven individual nations to conserve energy. These countries conserve energy purely for their own benefit in the future. Evidence: Most nations in Europe have developed and used automobiles that are highly energy efficient. Japan is a country naturally with nearly no energy resources, so it make great effort to conserve energy for future generations. An famous case is that Japan once brought crude oil from other countries and buried it under the sea . The speaker asserts that an international effort is needed to preserve the world’s energy resources for future generations. While individual nations, like people, are at times willing to make voluntary sacrifices for the benefit of others, my view is that international coordination is nevertheless necessary in light of the strong propensity of nations to act selfishly, and because the problem is international in scope. The main reason why an international effort is necessary is that, left to their own devices, individual nations, like people, will act according to their short­term motives and self­interest. The mere existence of military weapons indicates that self­interest and national survival are every nation’s prime drivers. And excessive consumption by industrialized nations of natural resources they know to be finite, when alternatives are at hand demonstrates that self­interest and short­sightedness extend to the use of energy resources as well. Furthermore, nations, like people, tend to rationalize their own self­ serving policies and actions. Emerging nations might argue, for example, that they should be exempt from energy conservation because it is the industrialized nations who can better afford to make sacrifices and who use more resources in the first place. Another reason why an international effort is required is that other problems of an international nature have also required global cooperation. For example, has each nation independently recognized the folly of nuclear weapons proliferation and voluntarily disarmed? No: only by way of an international effort, based largely on coercion of strong leaders against detractors, along with an appeal to self­interest, have we made some progress. By the same token, efforts of individual nations to thwart international drug trafficking have proven largely futile, because efforts have not been internationally based. Similarly, the problem of energy conservation transcends national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will ultimately suffer. In conclusion, nations are made up of individuals who, when left unconstrained, tend to act in their own self­interest and with short­term motives. In light of how we have dealt, or not dealt, with other global problems, it appears that an international effort is needed to ensure the preservation of natural resources for future generations. 5. “All groups and organizations should function as teams in which everyone makes decisions and shares responsibilities and duties. Giving one person central authority and responsibility for a project or task is not an effective way to get work done.” To what extent do you agree or disagree with the opinion expressed above? Support your views with reasons and/or specific examples drawn from your own work or school experiences, your observations, or your reading. “� � ” ° Ðv¯ ª H v ·ª Z B ÿ F Ð Zw·ª ð 6 ȶ ª Àv 1. 2. 3. For groups and organizations that are stable, it is reasonable to have a flat organizational structure. For groups and organizations that are always confronted with emergencies, it is always better to give one certain person central authority and responsibility. It is hard to say that one structure is necessarily better than the other. They all have advantages and disadvantages. And it is a case-by-case discussion. 12 Admittedly, q Ł + � � b 9 • ªV È ( take positive action b 9 • “ * � share � � � � � � � � X ˚ motivate the members’ creativity and initiative. � � � many companies let the employees to buy shares and stocks. 22 ��� ��� � everyone should be given the power to make the final decision. � � � � � � � � ˜ In many circumstances, the personal goal may be different from or even contrary to the goal of the group. S � � � + � � � J BE � � � � � � � � � � � � @ K B E incompatible conflict. � � � � �� � � ˜ < • � pŁ +�� � �� �� � cost­cutting policy � � � Ł h 9 • “ * � one person with the authority and responsibility for a project � � 3 assort with the different interests synthesize the various voices of all the group members and make the final decision.¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � � � + � stray from the initial goal of the task. Thesis sentence: it is true that team work is the most familiar functional way that adopted by many groups and organizations. It is also true that every team member should share responsibilities and duties within the team. However, it is hardly true that the absence of central authority that enable everybody to make decisions is an effective way to get work done. View1:compared with giving the responsibility for a task to one authoritative person, the sharing of responsibilities and duties among team members is a more effective way to get things done. Evidence: the allocated responsibility and duties give workers the feeling of being important and necessary that motivated them to fulfill their work. The fact that anyone who dose not accomplish his or her assigned work thus affect the whole progress of the project could be easily detected, gives the necessary pressure to workers that guarantee the efficiency thus the completion of the progect. View2: the claim that the everybody decision making structure rather than central authority is a more effective way to get things down is unwarranted. Evidence: Everybody makes decisions totally no decisions. Not everyone has acquired the essential abilities such as thorough analysis and foresighted prediction to make decisions. Which is a more productive method of performing a group task: allowing all group members to share in the decision making, duties and responsibilities, or appointing one member to make decisions, delegate duties and take responsibility? The speaker’s opinion is that the first method is always the best one. In my view, however, each of these alternatives is viable in certain circumstances, as illustrated by two very different examples. A jury in a criminal trial is good example of a group in which shared decision­making, duties, and responsibility is the most appropriate and effective way to get the job done. Each member of the jury is on equal footing with the others. While one person is appointed to head the jury, his or her function is to act as facilitator, not as leader. To place ultimate authority and responsibility on the facilitator would essentially be to appoint a judge, and to thereby defeat the very purpose of the jury system. By way of contrast, a trauma unit in a hospital is a case in which one individual should assume responsibility, delegate duties and make decisions. In trauma units, split­second decisions are inherently part of the daily routine, and it is generally easier for one person to make a quick decision than for a team to agree on how to proceed. One could argue that since decisions in trauma units are typically life­and­death ones, leaving these decisions to one person is too risky. However, this argument ignores the crucial point that only the most experienced individuals should be trusted with such a burden and with such power; leaving decisions to inexperienced group members can jeopardize a patient’s very life. In conclusion, I agree that in some situations the best way to accomplish a task is through teamwork-sharing responsibility, duties and decision making. However, in other situations, especially those where quick decisions are necessary or where individual experience is critical, the most effective means is for one individual to serve as leader and assume ultimate responsibility for completing the job. 8. “For hundreds of years, the monetary system of most countries has been based on the exchange of metal coins and printed pieces of paper. However, because of recent developments in technology, the international community should consider replacing the entire system of coins and paper with a system of electronic accounts of credits and debits.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� ¨ < / ¶ª ° Ðv ¯ ªá “S ª ’” / Hv ·ª’” Z A ÿ F Ð Zw·ªð6ȶ ª À 1. 2. 3. Intangible currencies are more convenient than its predecessor. Tangible currencies are safer than its counterparts. It is too extreme to let the electronic system replace the tangible system entirely. We can let they two coexist. Optional words: Thesis sentence: while electronic currencies enjoy their own merits, it still can not replace the entire system of tangible currencies. View1: convenient, efficient and easy to carry are the exclusive advantages of electronic currencies. Evidence: View2:tangible currencies such as coin and paper has its own merits and special functions that could not be replaced by electronic currencies. Evidence: merits: more reliable, more efficient in small sum transaction, more systematically safe; function: collection The prospect of converting the world’s monetary system of metal coins and printed paper into a computerized system of credits and debits is intriguing. Opponents of the idea regard a digital economy as a dangerous step toward a totalitarian society in which an elite class dominates an information­ starved lower class. My view, however, is that conversion to a digital economy has far­reaching economic and social virtues that outweigh the potential risk of misuse by a political elite. Supporters of the idea of “digital cash” view the move to a digital economy as the next logical step toward a global system of free trade and competition. Herein lies the main virtue of a digital economy. In facilitating trade among nations, consumers worldwide would enjoy a broader range of goods at more competitive prices. In addition, a digital economy would afford customers added convenience, while at the same time saving money for businesses. Making purchases with electronic currency would be simple, fast, and secure. There would be no need to carry cash and no need for cashiers to collect it. A good example of the convenience and savings afforded by such a system is the “pay and go” gasoline pump used at many service stations today. Using these pumps saves time for the customer and saves money for the business. A third benefit of such a system is its potential to eliminate illegal monetary transactions. Traffickers of illegal arms and drugs, dealers in black­market contraband, and counterfeiters all rely on tangible currency to conduct their activities. By eliminating hard currency, illegal transactions such as these would be much easier to track and record. As a result, illegal monetary transactions could be virtually eliminated. A related benefit would be the ability to thwart tax evasion by collecting tax revenues on transactions that otherwise would not be recorded. To sum up, I think it would be a good idea to convert current monetary systems into a system of electronic accounts. The economic benefits, convenience and savings afforded by such a system, along with the potential to reduce crime, far outweigh the remote loss of a significant social or political shift toward totalitarianism. 9. “Employees should keep their private lives and personal activities as separate as possible from the workplace.” “� *? B6 . 9o * ” 12 2n 3n Personal activities should not be brought to one's workplace since they can reduce one's efficiency. Thinking about one's private life can distract one from his or her work. Talking about private life and doing personal activities can disturb other fellow workers. It is inevitable for a person to think about his or her private life and to do some personal activities at the workplace. But an employee should do his or her best to focus on the work when at workplace. it is true that employees can hardly only work like a machine, that is to say, inevitably, they may carry some personal emotions while working. Sharing the personal interests and activities moderately may help build the positive relationship among colleagues. However, it is not a wise choice to let the employees to bring all their private life and personal activities to the workplace. � � � � � � � � ˜ < a mother worried about her child cannot efficiently focus on her task even if the deadline is coming. a girl who breaks up with her boyfriend during the work time will probably talk to other fellows about the bad emotion, which may have a potentially negative influence on the productivity of the staff. so on… allow personal life to impinge upon their job performance or intrude on coworkers.(sample) 12 22 Optional words: Separate/ isolate/ exclude Thesis sentence: I agree with the author’s point of view towards the relationship between private life and work because bring private life to workplaces has many bad effects on both the one who does so and people around him. View1: personal activities should not be brought to the workplace since they can reduce one’s efficiency. Evidence: View2: dealing with one’s personal affairs at the workplace will inevitably produce negative effects on other coworkers. Evidence: Inspirer imitations thus affect the morale and productivity. Working atmosphere, morale, corporate culture. View3: since sometimes problems of private life will catch people all the time, the supervisors should be more sensitive to their subordinator’s difficulties, and help them to handle them properly. Should employees leave their personal lives entirely behind them when they enter the workplace, as the speaker suggests here? While I agree that employees should not allow their personal lives to interfere with their jobs, the speaker fails to consider that integrating personal life with work can foster a workplace ambiance that helps everyone do a better job, thereby promoting success for the organization. Engaging coworkers in occasional conversation about personal interests and activities can help build collegiality among coworkers that adds to their sense of common purpose on the job. Managers would be well advised to participate in and perhaps even plan the sharing of personal information—as a leadership tool as well as a morale booster. An employee feels valued when the boss takes time to ask about the employee’s family or recent vacation. The employee, in turn, is likely to be more loyal to and cooperative with the boss. Company­sponsored social events—picnics, parties, excursions, and so forth —also help to produce greater cohesiveness in an organization, by providing opportunities for employees to bond with one another in ways that translate into better working relationships. Admittedly, employees should guard against allowing their personal life to impinge upon their job performance or intrude on coworkers. Excessive chatting about non­business topics, frequent personal telephone calls, and the like, are always distracting. And romances between coworkers are best kept confidential, at least to the extent they disrupt work or demoralize or offend other employees. By the same token, however, employees who are too aloof —sharing nothing personal with others—may be resented by coworkers who perceive them as arrogant, unfriendly, or uncooperative. The ill­will and lack of communication that is likely to result may ultimately harm the organization. In the final analysis, employees should strike a careful balance when they mix their personal lives with their jobs. Although there are some circumstances in which bringing one’s personal life to the job may be counterproductive, for many reasons it is a good idea to inject small doses of personal life into the workplace. 11. “When someone achieves greatness in any field — such as the arts, science, politics, or business — that person’s achievements are more important than any of his or her personal faults.” “ ¥ Ö ¶ªA o¥ Ö ¶ªA 9 Ì€y ª ’ W I 2 ” 1n Every one has faults. We can not ignore one's achievement only because he or she has made some faults. Likewise, we can not neglect one's error when he or she achieves greatness in the field. 22 When it comes to which one is more important, the greatness or the faults, the final judgement should be based on the situation of the certain person. In fact, as far as I am concerned, it makes no sense to make such a judgement. 32 We should give a person fair and reasonable evalluation. It is imprudent n to say that the greatness one achieves in one field is necessarily more important than the faults he or she makes. È(g¶ª V á / hª’ E R ’ E controversial topic 1 The proponents of this view may argue that ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � � � compared with the huge achievements, those great people’s faults appear so unimportant as to be forget. � � Yet even a cursory review of the private lives of past Presidents reveals substantial evidence that Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, Lyndon Johnson and John Kennedy had extramarital affairs. Thomas Jefferson, many believe, fathered children by one of his slaves. And Grover Cleveland confessed to having an illegitimate child. p è °’W Roosevelt boosted the American economy and cease the recession…Ø p * · ª A neglect such faults. 9 o* *,* * ? B 6 ao, who released Chinese from the M 3 aggression of other nations, and also, who started the “Great culture revolution” in China which brought huge disaster to hundreds and thousands of innocent people. Poet named “Haizi” who is highly achieved in arts and literature, murdered his wife and then committed suicide. It is unfair to take it for granted that any achievement in any field is more important than life. � *?B 6 . p9 o * right answer to this question. 2 erpetual ` ’W &B6 collectively and? objectively evaluate a person by * considering both the faults and the achievements rather than by claiming one of the two is more important than the other. 2 3 Optional words: Greatness/extraordinary/ outstanding/ supreme Success/ achievement/ accomplishment/ attainment Thesis sentence: in most cases, a great achievement that one gains in certain field is more notable than the faults he has ever made. However, that does necessarily mean that the former is more important than the later. Moreover, it is severely biased to praise people’s achievements without even a glance on their faults. View1: Is almost undoubted that we can not eliminate people’s achievements just because they have made some faults. Likewise, we can not neglect people’s faults when they achieve greatness in certain fields. Evidence: View2: An appropriate judgment towards a person should be based on thorough analysis covering both his achievements and faults. It is arbitrary to say whether great achievements are more important than faults unless the all-round situation of a certain person is presented. Evidence: Perhaps in some instances the personal failings of great achievers are unimportant relative to the achievements. In many cases, however, the relative significance of personal failings can be very great, depending on two factors: (1) the extent to which the failing is part of the achievement process itself, and (2) the societal impact of the achiever’s failing apart from his or her own success. Personal failings and achievement are often symbiotically related. The former test the would­be achiever’s mettle; they pose challenges—necessary resistance that drives one to achieve despite the shortcoming. Personal failings may also compel one to focus on one’s strengths, thereby spawning achievement. For example, poor academic or job performance may propel a gifted entrepreneur to start his or her own business. In the arts, a personal failing may be a necessary ingredient or integral part of the process of achieving. Artists and musicians often produce their most creative works during periods of depression, addiction, or other distress. In business, insensitivity to the “human” costs of success has bred grand achievements, as with the questionable labor practices of the great philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. A second type of personal failing is one that is unrelated to the achievement. Modern politics is replete with examples: the marital indiscretions of the great leader John F. Kennedy and the paranoia of the great statesman Richard Nixon, to name just two. Were the personal failings of these two presidents less “important” than their achievements? In the former example, probably so. In the latter example, probably not since it resulted in the Watergate scandal—a watershed event in American politics. In cases such as these, therefore, the societal impact of shortcoming and achievement must be weighed on a case­by­case basis. In sum, history informs us that personal failings are often part­and­parcel of great achievements; even where they are not, personal shortcomings of great achievers often make an important societal impact of their own. 12. “Education has become the main provider of individual opportunity in our society. Just as property and money once were the keys to success, education has now become the element that most ensures success in life.” “ 2 ° Ð v ¯ª A 0 v.·ª A Z C ÿ. 1n V ƒÎ é- ’ W p?B6 ÿ'B6 ð 'B6 ` 'B 2n & Ì€ yª ’ W s . 2 ° Ðv¯ ª A pè ° ’ W provider p è ° ’ E On one hand, there is nothing that can be better than education in providing us with all kinds of knowledge and skills for solving different problems in our respective domains. How can we achieve success without those expertise and techniques? Some one may argue that experience and common sense are enough for this kind of concern. However, in my opinion, nothing can really substitute education, while it may be true that the above-mentioned elements are also important in gaining the knowledge to achieve success. What is more, education can make a person improve morally and purify his or her spirit. In my point of 0 v .·ª view, morality is also an important element for one’s success, although it is always neglected or overlooked. Dictators, for instance, they are likely to be very intelligent and hard-working people, but they are inferior in ethic. It is obvious that those people can not be considered successful. The best way to make a person moral and respectable is education. It teaches people to tell good from bad; it helps people to distinguish justice form evil. privilege n&vt property determine access obtain excellent opportunity candidate 12 Education may be always play an indispensable role in getting successful in life. � � � � � � � � specialized and professional knowledge for future occupation, but also many essential principles and skills in the life, such as insight, virtue and analysis. q Ł + � � ‘ } @ • “ * � � ¨ 2 � � � � � � � � w key role � � � � � � � � w ) • property and money can provide the opportunity of receiving education. � privilege and property were the keys to education, and thus to success in life. q @ • “people have equal opportunity to obtain education. q @ • “ Property can no longer possess exclusively the resource of education. � � � � � � � � w 32 ˜ q @ • “ * � employers are more concerned with the real ability of the employees rather than their family fortune and social connection. � adequate competition people with higher education h}@• “* background Optional words: Ensure/assure/ guarantee Thesis sentence: Money and property has been replaced by education as the main provider of individual opportunity to success. View1: In the past, the wealth people are more likely to be successful because the education is only accessible by them. When becomes available to almost everyone, education plays an more and more important role in providing opportunities to success. Evidence: View2:In today’s business world, employer are more likely hire people on the basis of capacity rather than the kinds of traditionally personal connections that are common among the wealthy. Evidence: ctor offers more opportunities for success in our society: education or money and property? In my view, education has replaced money and property as the main provider of such opportunities today. I base my view on two reasons. First, education—particularly higher education—used to be available only to the wealthy but now is accessible to almost anyone. Second, because of the civil­rights movement and resulting laws, businesses are now required to hire on the basis of merit rather than the kinds of personal connections traditionally common among the wealthy. Education probably always played a key role in determining one’s opportunities for success. But in the past, good post­secondary education was available mainly to the privileged classes. Because money and property largely determined one’s access to higher education, money and property really were the critical factors in opening doors to success. However, higher education is more egalitarian today. Given our vast numbers of state universities and financial­aid programs, virtually anyone who meets entrance requirements for college can obtain an excellent college education and open up windows of opportunity in life. Another reason those opportunities will be open to educated young people from middle­class and poorer back grounds is that hiring is more meritocratic today than ever before. In principle, at least, we have always been a society where all people are equal; yet in the past, children of the wealthy and the well connected could expect to obtain higher­status jobs and to receive better pay. But the laws and programs resulting from our civil­rights struggles have produced a modern business climate in which jobs are available on an equal­opportunity basis, and in which candidates have a legal right to be judged on the merit of their educational back ground and experience. In conclusion, education is probably the main factor in opening doors to success for young people in our society. The fact that education has supplanted money and property in this role is owing to a more egalitarian system of higher education, as well as to more merit­based hiring practices that generally value individual education over family fortune or connections. 13. “Responsibility for preserving the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, not to government.” “ ’W &B 6 ” 1n R Ð 'B 6 ’E *'B 6 &B 6 ˜ ó 4 · ª A˜ ó 4 · ª A U N Ì€ yª ’W moreover s 2n pè°’E 3n Ð8=“ *'B 6 ˜ó4· ªA ˜ ó 4·ªA N Ì€ yª ’W s a tug of war p è ° ’ E a political tug of war between those in favor of the new legislation and those against it. large in scale participation participate ensure preservation individual on behalf of n at large p è ° ’ E Experience tells us that individuals tend to act on behalf of their own short-term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large. complete elimination emission automobile nevertheless n manufacturer manufacture because voluntarily volunteer voluntary volunteer voluntary voluntarily sacrifice accomplish regulatory n enforcement impose necessary standard ensure achieve aside from inherently inherent pandemic } U · ª epidemic } U traverse border environment environmental hazard enemy analysis authority authoritative possess attainment agreed-upon } U · ª 12 The proponents of this assertion may argue that the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, therefore, it is reasonable to attribute to each person the responsibility for preserving it. a, q Ł + � � y @ • “ * � � ¨ < the condition of the environment may have directly effect on each person } @ • “ * � has the obligation to protect the environment from being polluted. b, � p Ł + � � � � � � � 22 However, to leave all the responsibility to individuals is hardly a wise decision. Despite of the argument above, we should still not lose the sight of the fact that individuals have strong propensity of self­interest and short­term consideration. ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � V � � � + � � voluntarily make sacrifice to protect the environment.y @ • “ * � � forbidden smoking in public smokers may enjoy their cigarettes whenever they want. Deforestation kill excessively ˆy * · ª A áF k ª ’W Z � � � + � dumping noxious water into the river/ fatal ¨ < ¶ “ A q Ł + � � � } @ • “ * � � ¨ < prohibit. deforestation/ kill excessively… Optional words: Preserve/ conserve/ maintain Thesis sentence: While individual person can do a lot to protect our natural environment, the responsibility of preservation the overall environment lies in the hands of government with help form each individual in the society. View1: Experience tells us that individuals tend to act on behalf of their own short-term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large. View2:the government has certain advantages in preserving the environment. Evidence: the government can place certain regulations on the wastes and pollutants towards environment emitted by industries. Fines deprived from corporations and individual ones that disobey the environmental regulations can be used on many ways such as preserve the forests, planting trees, create conserved areas that will improve our current situations. While nearly everyone would agree in principle that certain efforts to preserve the natural environment are in humankind’s best interest, environmental issues always involve a tug of war among conflicting political and economic interests. For this reason, and because serious environmental problems are generally large in scale, government participation is needed to ensure environmental preservation. Experience tells us that individuals (and private corporations owned by individuals) tend to act on behalf of their own short­term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large. For example, current technology makes possible the complete elimination of polluting emissions from automobiles. Nevertheless, neither automobile manufacturers nor consumers are willing or able to voluntarily make the short­term sacrifices necessary to accomplish this goal. Only the government holds the regulatory and enforcement power to impose the necessary standards and to ensure that we achieve such goals. Aside from the problems of self­interest and enforcement, environmental issues inherently involve public health and are far too pandemic in nature for individuals to solve on their own. Many of the most egregious environmental violations traverse state and sometimes national borders. Environmental hazards are akin to those involving food and drug safety and to protecting borders against enemies; individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address these widespread hazards. In the final analysis, only the authority and scope of power that a government possesses can ensure the attainment of agreed­upon environmental goals. Because individuals are incapable of assuming this responsibility, government must do so. 15. “Nations should cooperate to develop regulations that limit children’s access to adult material on the Internet.” * *The Internet is a worldwide computer network. Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� @ KB E ” 7i @ The issue here is whether an international effort to regulate children's access to adult material on the Internet is worthwhile. In my view, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort. I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently global nature of the problem. Adults everywhere have a serious interest in limiting children's access to pornographic material. Pornographic material tends to confuse children----distorting their notion of sex, of themselves as sexual beings, and of how people ought to treat one another. Particularly in the case of domination and child pornography, the messages children receive from pornographic material cannot contribute in a healthy way to their emerging sexuality. Given this important interest that knows no cultural bounds, we should regulate children's access to sexually explicit material on the internet. U . ˜ ò q² ¶ è ° ’ E ` 1=· ª V È( g (ozone depletion) n PRIME CRIMINAL(CFC)È ( g ¶ª V á /h ª ’ E R ’E . n, (POLITICAL HURDLE) Uò regulate access material worthwhile cooperative regulatory universality ¨ q U · ª V I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently global nature of this problem. pornographic n sexual ø s U · ª emerging ø sU · ª sexuality n bound contained within national border be akin to emission release phenomenon regulation contamination n contaminate admittedly formidable hurdle compliance n consequence n cooperate 12 pornographic material has seriously negative effect on children­misleading their sense of sex, of the normal relationships between people, and of themselves as sexual beings. � � � � � � � �¤ 8 @ • “ * � are vulnerable to the bad influence of such adults materials � � distract their concentration from study to those distorted notions. � p Ł + � � � � � � � protect them from being hurt and influenced by such materials. However, 8 @ • “ * regulations lose their previous effectiveness because of the development of internet. Just as the companies which contaminate the natural environment move to other countries after being punished, so the company offering pornographic materials on line can + �� �� ��� � �� move to other parts of the world to avoid punishment. � p Ł �p Ł + � � � � � � � � � � 22 3o Admittedly, � � �� � � � � ¤ 9 • hostile � � � � � � � � ¤ Optional words: Regulation/ law/ restriction Limit/confine/.control/ hamper/ inhibit/ Thesis sentence: View1: adult material on the internet may have terrible affect on children with immature point of view and judgment. Evidence: pornographic material. tends to confuse children----distorting their notion of sex, and of how people ought to treat one another. View2:since Internet has no national boundaries, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort. Evidence: The issue here is whether an international effort to regulate children’s access to adult material on the Internet is worthwhile. In my view, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort. I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently pandemic nature of the problem. Adults everywhere have a serious interest in limiting access by children to pornographic material. Pornographic material tends to confuse children— distorting their notion of sex, of themselves as sexual beings, and of how people ought to treat one another. Particularly in the case of domination and child pornography, the messages children receive from pornographic material cannot contribute in a healthy way to their emerging sexuality. Given this important interest that knows no cultural bounds, we should regulate children’s access to sexually explicit material on the Internet. However, information on the Internet is not easily contained within national borders. Limiting access to such information is akin to preventing certain kinds of global environmental destruction. Consider the problem of ozone depletion thought to be a result of chloroflourocarbon (CFC) emissions. When the government regulated CFC production in the U.S., corporations responsible for releasing CFC’s into the atmosphere simply moved abroad, and the global threat continued. Similarly, the Internet is a global phenomenon; regulations in one country will not stop “contamination” overall. Thus, successful regulation of Internet pornography requires international cooperation, just as successful CFC regulation finally required the joint efforts of many nations. Admittedly, any global regulatory effort faces formidable political hurdles, since cooperation and compliance on the part of all nations—even warring ones—is inherently required. Nevertheless, as in the case of nuclear disarmament or global warming, the possible consequences of failing to cooperate demand that the effort be made. And dissenters can always be coerced into compliance politically or economically by an alliance of influential nations. In sum, people everywhere have a serious interest in the healthy sexual development of children and, therefore, in limiting children’s access to Internet pornography. Because Internet material is not easily confined within national borders, we can successfully regulate children’s access to adult materials on the Internet only by way of international cooperation. 21. “Job security and salary should be based on employee performance, not on years of service. Rewarding employees primarily for years of service discourages people from maintaining consistently high levels of productivity.” “9 Ì€ y ª’ W I 2 ° Ðv ¯ªA 0v. ·ª A ” ’W &B6 .È (J , ¶ ª A à áF k ª’ W È L ,n ˜ q è° ’ W •q * ·ª A ÈL , . productivity productive counterproductive security secure salary solely sole performance length incentive motivation enticement stimulus impetus incitement tenured professor associate professor achievement reward average worthwhile amply ample schedule salary condemn n ,n loyal royal loyalty refuse adjust counterproductive attract retain reserve withhold uphold criterion criteria security ignore ignorance 1 ) ƒ Î *-’E p 5 = “ ——8 = “ ð8 =“ `8 provide third­class ’ E morale ¨< ¶ “ * �� Æ % “ + � � R � � ’E performance ¨ < ¶ “ * �� Æ % “ + � � R � � �p Ł + �� � � � � � � � — I B E � � �� @ I B E � � � � A · ª V y ð J ·ªV W Ì €w ª ’E y devote their entire life to the development of one corporation�� � � � � � � @ K B E � � � � �� � � � � � 7 @� � � � treated unfairly q @ • “ * � loyalty � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K BE � � � � ! � 1. 2. n *? B 6 ,R . ;È ( , ¶ ª 9 o * á F k ª ’ W A $ .R ’W*? &B6 Z ,˜ ’ q Wè ° ’ W •q * ·ª A ’. W 2 3 View1. Performance plays an important role in the assessment procedural of employees. View2. It is true that reward employees solely according to their seniority will affect the overall productivity, however, the year of services do contain some indication on specialty and experience. More over, when conducting work assessment of certain positions such as consultant, in which performance become hard to evaluate, seniority acts as useful supplement According to the statement, in order to ensure high productivity, companies should base their employees’ salaries and job security solely on job performance, and not on length of service to the company. I agree that salary increases and job security are powerful incentives to high achievement and should generally go to those who do the best work. However, to ensure employee productivity, companies must also reward tenured employees with cost­ of­living raises—though not with job security. On the one hand, rewarding average job performance with large pay increases or promises of job security is a waste of resources—for two reasons. First, complacent employees will see no reason to become more productive. Secondly, those normally inclined to high achievement may decide the effort isn’t worthwhile when mediocre efforts are amply compensated. Companies should, therefore, adjust their pay schedules so that the largest salaries go to the most productive employees. On the other hand, employees who perform their jobs satisfactorily should be given regular, though small, service­based pay increases—also for two reasons. First, the cost of living is steadily rising, so on the principle of fair compensation alone, it is unjust to condemn loyal employees to de facto salary reductions by refusing them cost­of­living raises. Secondly, failure to adjust salaries to reflect the cost of living may be counterproductive for the firm, which will have difficulty attracting and retaining good employees without such a policy. In the final analysis, the statement correctly identifies job performance as the single best criterion for salary and job security. However, the statement goes too far; it ignores the fact that a cost­of­living salary increase for tenured employees not only enhances loyalty and, in the end, productivity, but also is required by fairness. 22. “Clearly, government has a responsibility to support the arts. However, if that support is going to produce anything of value, government must place no restrictions on the art that is produced.” To what extent do you agree or disagree with the opinion expressed above? Develop your position by giving specific reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. I “— B E @IB E cðA · ªc ð A· ª3 Ì€ c ª’” h” 1. w ð A · ª cðA · ª6 Ì € cª ’” e o w ð A ·ª cðA · ª7 Ì € cª ’” e o n wð A · ªcðA · ª7 Ì € cª ’” e o wð A · ªcðA · ª6 Ì € cª ’” e o ˜q è ° ’” `bB · ªÈ</ 2. w ð A · ª cðA · ª6 Ì € cª ’” e o wðA · ªcðA · ª7 Ì € cª ’” e o wð A · ªcðA · ª6 Ì € cª ’” e o È( / ¶ ªá“S ª ’” R ’” unwarranted baseless groudless bottomless foundationless gratuitous groundless n private goods n n public goods n externality n non-rivalry n non-excludability n rivalry n excludability 0 c · ªV private sector n public sector n collection n prop up n support uphold n paint the devil blacker than he is n commonweal-oriented n n constrain confine n negative impact n positive impact n absolute n guarantee safeguard n naked 12 the perpetua � � l virtue, such as bravery, affection, responsibility, honesty and so forth. The Lord of the rings; � � remind people of the intrinsic demerits stemmed from the dark side of humanity, such as aggression and greed. Shakespeare’s Macbeth instruct people that the insatiable h B • ambition is pernicious. � �� � � � � � ¸ < • �� � Ð IB E � � � � @ I B E � � � � A • “ * � � A • “ * � � 4 � � � � � � � “ + � � � � � The pè° ’E government of Soviet Union, forced all the arts it subsidized to follow the “party line” and squashed those artists who resisted such control. � � democratic countries, such control is hidden and indirect, but still exist. . � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � � # � � environment, criminality, � education, starvation… it is not a wise decision for the government to allocate the limited 22 32 42 resources on arts while ignoring the more urgent demand cited above. . � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @� � � � � @ K B E � � � � " � � charitarian are doing an excellent job in supporting the prosperity of arts. Optional words: Government/ the authorities Art/artist Support/finance/ patronize/ loan/ sustain/ pledge Thesis sentence: The inevitable representation of human civilization, art must be count in the responsibilities that government carries. But support without restrictions will probably lead to fruitless. View1: government should support art Evidence: because arts have very important functions in our civilization. for example: Paintings arouse imagination Music heal broken heart and purify dirty minds View2: unselected supporting of arts will probably lead to fruitless Evidence: Some radical forms of arts go beyond the acceptance of the masses and contradict our social moral. for example: posters features blood and violence The speaker here argues that government must support the arts but at the same time impose no control over what art is produced. The implicit rationale for government intervention in the arts is that, without it, cultural decline and erosion of our social fabric will result. However, I find no empirical evidence to support this argument, which in any event is unconvincing in light of more persuasive arguments that government should play no part in either supporting or restricting the arts. First, subsidizing the arts is neither a proper nor a necessary job for government. Although public health is generally viewed as critical to a society’s very survival and therefore an appropriate concern of government, this concern should not extend tenuously to our cultural “health” or well being. A lack of private funding might justify an exception; in my observation, however, philanthropy is alive and well today, especially among the new technology and media moguls. Second, government cannot possibly play an evenhanded role as arts patron. Inadequate resources call for restrictions, priorities, and choices. It is unconscionable to relegate normative decisions as to which art has “value” to a few legislators and jurists, who may be unenlightened in their notions about art. Also, legislators are all too likely to make choices in favor of the cultural agendas of those lobbyists with the most money and influence. Third, restricting artistic expression may in some cases encroach upon the constitutional right of free expression. In any case, governmental restriction may chill creativity, thereby defeating the very purpose of subsidizing the arts. In the final analysis, government cannot philosophically or economically justify its involvement in the arts, either by subsidy or sanction. Responsibility lies with individuals to determine what art has value and to support that art. 24. “A powerful business leader has far more opportunity to influence the course of a community or a nation than does any government official.” , “@ * * ? B6 F ƒÎé- ’W p ? B” 1. y ð 4 · ª A y ð 4·ªA — Ì€yª ’W s . 2 seperation of the three powers(the legislative, executive and judicial powers) In this work he argued that the three powers a state has are the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial and that for a state to remain democratic, these powers must be separated and there must be checks and balances to prevent a single group from acquiring control over two or more of them. ˜ó J ·ª V ˜ó J · ªV D Ì € wª ’ E a n U5 = “ a group’˜ q 1° ’ U èE ðn Á ¶ ªV È 2. & Ì€ w ª ’E a n °Ð v ¯ª V ¨T =·ª 3. ˜ ó J · ª V ˜ó J · ªV D Ì € wª ’ E a n Ug U U5 = “ ^ ƒ Î *- ’ E p 5= “ goverment order procedure process complex complicated intricate higher-up subordinate superior restict restriction confine constrain curb administration collective the seperation of the three powers: the legislative the executive and the judicial decision-making carry out implement perform politics-centered economy-centered influence effect impact historical influential abound on balance=with all things considered admittedly opportunity commerce commercial check-and-balance system ¨ T = · ª V scandal illuminate illumination luminous lumination technic technical technology technician technological entity equity seems to pale next to... Yet the impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry. by virture of for the sake of on the account of 1. Admittedly, � p Ł + � � � � � � `¶ ªV È closely related. � apparent. q Ł + � � took control of American oil supplyø 2 Á ¶ ª A GATES �� � � � � � � h b Rockefeller � � � � � � � � h pè°’ W course of a community. hb 2. � � is based on its existence, which is permitted by the government. ¤ B • “ * policy � � � � � � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ �� � � 3. Moreover, �� � � � � � � h b D • power, which can be only generated from absolutely authority. � � � � �� � � � �h b D • Yet even a cursory review of the history reveals substantial evidence that it is the government leader rather than the business leader that can make the pivotal decision when the nation is in crisis. ¤ B • “ * recession � p Ł + � � � � � � � � revive the economy of the whole nation, � p Ł + � � � � � � � positive policy to stimulate the companies and thus the economy of � the whole nation. Roosevelt. Bill Clinton. financial policy View 1: Unlike business leader, government power is likely to subject to many more restraints. Our check-andbalance system, the legislation influence and the voting power are all factors that temper the power of government official to the course of a community or a nation. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold the actual legislative and judicial power by their financial supporting of official activities such as governmental elections. View2: While take more thorough consideration, the government official is likely to have more direct and broad influence on a community and a nation. Evidence: various approach to influence other than financial approach In addition the governmental official have the abilities to regulate commerce, Historical examples of both influential public officials and influential business leaders abound. However, the power of the modern­era business leader is quite different from that of the government official. On balance, the CEO seems to be better positioned to influence the course of community and of nations. Admittedly the opportunities for the legislator to regulate commerce or of the jurist to dictate rules of equity are official and immediate. No private individual can hold that brand of influence. Yet official power is tempered by our check­and­balance system of government and, in the case of legislators, 0 v a · ªV by the voting power of the electorate. Our business leaders are not so constrained, so, their opportunities far exceed those of any public official. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold de facto legislative and judicial power by way of their direct influence over public officials, as the Clinton Administration’s fund­raising scandal of 1997 illuminated all too well. The industrial and technological eras have bred such moguls of capitalism as Pullman, Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Gates, who by the nature of their industries and their business savvy, not by force of law, have transformed our economy, the nature of work , and our very day­to­day existence. Of course, many modern­day public servants have made the most of their opportunities—for example, the crime­busting mayor Rudolph Giuliani and the new­ dealing President Franklin Roosevelt. Yet their impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry. In sum, modem business leaders by virtue of the far­reaching impact of their industries and of their freedom from external constraints, have supplanted lawmakers as the great opportunists of the world and prime movers of society. 26. “Location has traditionally been one of the most important determinants of a business’s success. The importance of location is not likely to change, no matter how advanced the development of computer communications and others kinds of technology becomes.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “ ó A ·ª ˜ óA · ª8 Ì € cª’” h o ” 1. & Ì €c ª ’” e o °Ðv¯ ª H v ·ªR ’” JB E : @K @K B E 7i @ p 5 BE ï IB E àI B E PI BE ˜óA · ª˜óA· ª AMWAYn DELL 2. E ƒ ÎQ -’” pKB E ÿIBE ðIBE ` trend tendency net telecommunication transportation location position site important significant determinant factor reason tangible intangible palpable tactile touchable insurance electronic periodic periodical production goods commodity manufacturer producer essentiality significance importance strengthen reinforce weaken demonstrate show exhibit display conveient 1. location ¨ < ¶ “ * � � á / h ª ’ E ] ’ E ��� near the sea or the river ¤ q @ • “ * p5 = “ transportation of the cargo… @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � ˛ Q › ’ E � purchasing power the demand of various goods may be relatively greater. � � the sale. 2. Admittedly, the burgeoning technologies have changed the way of purchasing and selling. However, the extent, to which such technologies will threaten the pivotal role played by location in business, depends on the types of such business. ¤ q @ • “ * � retail business, ¤ q @ • “ *persuade the consumers to buy ¤ q @ • “ * cosmetics. � � � try on the clothes and compare the different types and textures…� � � � � � � � 8 , @ dinner out… 3. Things may be different when it comes to other kinds of companies, for example, those who used to produce large­scale goods make sale depends on the contract signed with other companies. @ @ � � � � � @K B E � � � � Æ � � � � � � � ˛ Q › + � � p K B E � � � � � � � � � � 7@ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � � View1. To many traditional businesses location still plan an fatal role on its success. Evidence: restaurants transportation services View2. as commuter technology and electronic communication become more and more convenient, the intangible locations on the internet have replaced the location in the real world in some business areas. Evidence: Electronic publications, on line banks, internet retail stores, DELL In retail, or “storefront,” business, location is still a key ingredient of business success. The extent to which this will continue to be true, given the inexorable growth of Internet commerce, will vary among industries. In more traditional retail sectors, such as clothing, cosmetics, and home improvement, an in­person visit to a retail store is often necessary—to try on clothes for fit, compare fragrances, or browse among a full selection of textures, colors, and styles. Also, activities such as shopping and dining out are for many consumers enjoyable experiences in themselves, as well as excuses to get out of the house and mingle with others in their community. Finally, shipping costs for large items such as appliances and home­improvement items render home shopping impracticable. Thus, burgeoning technologies pose no serious threat to Main Street, and location will continue to play a pivotal role in the fate of many retail businesses. Nevertheless, technology­related industries are sure to move away from physical storefronts to virtual ones. Products that can be reduced to digital “bits and bites,” such as books and magazines, recordings, and software applications, are more efficiently distributed electronically. Computer hardware will not disappear from Main Street quite so quickly, though, since its physical look and feel enters into the buying decision. Computer superstores should continue to thrive alongside companies such as Dell, which does not distribute through retail stores. In conclusion, consumer demand for convenient location will continue with respect to certain tangible products, while for other products alternative distribution systems will gradually replace the storefront, rendering location an obsolete issue. 27. “A company’s long-term success is primarily dependent on the job satisfaction and the job security felt by the company’s employees.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� @K B E s 7” @ g 1. D r B · ª * asset p 5 = “ ïI B E à IBE PIBE ˜ ó A· ª * ˜ ó A ·ª * & Ì€ / ª’ + h s i ° Ð v ª¯ * H v s ·ª * Dr = ·ª * ? @K B E s 7 g@ . 2. & Ì€ / ª’ + h s i ° Ð v ª¯ * H v s ·ª * p è°’ + long-term success primarily dependent job satisfication job security high productivity hign quality high quantity product skillful proficient masterful professional with all one's heart serve efficient efficiency satisfied contented profit entice enticement security secure in the knowledge that one has strog backing factor determine determinant successful factor typical typically vital pivotal ultimate eventual final eventually decidedly substandard subconsciousness subconscious workplace potential excessive nevertheless competitor competition morale This list hardly exhausts all the factors that can contribute to ..., and none of them is pivotal in any case. complacency complacent self-satisfied While ... clearly boosts ...., the same cannot be said for ... View1: employees are one of the most important assets of a company. Job satisfaction of the workers influences a lot on their performance thus overall productivity which play a fatal role in the success of the company. View2: unlike job satisfaction, job security may not necessarily lead to success. Evidence: job security induce laziness, lack of motivation I agree that job satisfaction is an important factor in determining whether a company will be successful in the long term. However, other factors typically play just as vital a role in the ultimate success or failure of a business. At the same time, job security is becoming decidedly unimportant for many employees and, in any event, often leads to substandard job performance. I agree that business success is more likely when employees feel satisfied with their jobs. Employees who dislike the workplace or their jobs are not likely to reach their potential performance levels; they may tend to arrive late for work , perform their tasks in an unimaginative and sluggish manner, or take excessive sick leaves. Nevertheless, a firm’s long­term success may equally result from other factors such as finding a market niche for products, securing a reputation for quality products and services, or forming a synergistic alliance with a competitor. This list hardly exhausts all the factors that can contribute to a firm’s ultimate success, and no one of them—including job satisfaction—is pivotal in every case. While job satisfaction clearly boosts employee morale and contributes to the overall success of a company, the same cannot be said for job security. Admittedly an employee worried about how secure his or her job is might be less creative or productive as a result. By the same token, however, too much confidence in the security of one’s job can foster complacency, which, in turn, may diminish employees’ creativity and productivity. Moreover, many employees actually place job security relatively low on the list of what they want in a job. In fact, more and more workers today are positively uninterested in long­term job security; instead, they are joining firms for the sole purpose of accomplishing near­term professional goals, then leaving to face the next challenge. To sum up, the claim at issue overrates the importance of job satisfaction and security by identifying them as thekey factors in a company’s long­term success. Job satisfaction among employees is very important, but it is not clearly more important than many other factors. At the same time, job security is clearly less important, and even unimportant in some cases. 29. “Too many people think only about getting results. The key to success, however, is to focus on the specific task at hand and not to worry about results.” “ p?B 6 ï'B6 9 o * =' B6 * , * ó4 ·ª � a˜ nd/orA� � � � � * ? °º B 6 1 à' B6 ˜ ó 4· ª A 1. p ? B E � � ï'B6 à' B6 =' B6 ˜ ó 4· ª A .˜ ó 4 �· ª�A� � °º È L ¶ “* á F k ª’ W $ .’ W 2. ˜ q Ł + À v B ·ª A .*È , @ � � � *?B6 ; ƒ Î é - ’ W .2 p ? B 6 È L ¶ “* á F k ª’ W $ p’ ivotal ˜ q è ° ’ W W À v B ·ª A ÈL . at hand anxious anxiety specific specialized certain result outcome eventuality consequence sequence think it scorn to trivial petty accomplish accomplishment attainment keystone advisable 2 inadvisable to operate from a strategically advantageous position strategical strategy advantageous advantage disadvantage focus on the details solely ignore efficiency keystone endproduct proceed process precedent preceding merit admittedly daunting overwhleming Admittedly, this advice has some merit, by focusing on the details at hand one is less likely to become discouraged by the daunting and overwhleming tasks ahead in an ambitous project. without reference to virtually The central problem with this advice is that focusing attention completely on the task at hand without reference to how that task is related to the end product would be virtually impossible to do. random diligent likelihood minimal View1: without achievements of specific tasks there will be no base for final results. View2: however, without a specific ideal destination, efforts will find no way to go. This advice means fundamentally that if we focus our attention on the details of a project rather than on the end product, the result will be better than if we proceed the other way around. Admittedly, this advice has some merit; by focusing on the details at hand one is less likely to become discouraged by the daunting or overwhelming tasks ahead in an ambitious project. Otherwise, however, I think this advice is poor, The central problem with this advice is that focusing attention completely on the task at hand without reference to how that task is related to the end product would be virtually impossible to do. The reason for this is simple. Without some reference to a goal or a result we would have no idea of what task to perform in the first place. As a result, the various tasks we engage in would be somewhat random and, in turn, no matter how diligent and careful we were in performing them the likelihood of producing worthwhile or successful end products would be minimal. To ensure good results, one should instead take a balanced approach to the task at hand. By a balanced approach I mean paying attention to both the desired result and the specific tasks that are required to achieve it. House building provides a good example of this approach. The house plan not only contains a rendering of the finished product but also contains detailed drawings and descriptions of each of the specific components required to ensure a successful result. Moreover, the order of the tasks is determined with reference to this result. In my estimation, virtually all successful projects proceed in the fashion illustrated in this example. In sum, I don’t think that the advice offered in the statement is worth following. In my view, following this advice is more likely to produce unsuccessful results than successful ones. 31. “Financial gain should be the most important factor in choosing a career.” “ qè ° ’W ovB· ªA ÈL ” 1. & Ì€yª ’W s . 2 а v ¯ ª A 0v & Ì€yª ’W s . 2 а v ¯ ª A 0v X v B · ª A mother Teresa, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize,dedicated the majority of her life to helping the poorest of the poor in India. Although she was not rich all through her life, she was happier than most of her contemporaries because she gained happiness when she helped the poor.bliss blessedness n & Ì€ w ª ’ E a n °Ð v¯ ªV 0va ·ª v= · ª V X 2. & Ì€ w ª ’ E a n °Ð v¯ ªV 0va & Ì€ w ª ’E a n °Ð v¯ ªV 0va othes choose to pursue intellectual or creative fulfillment-as wirters, artists, or ¨¥ 7 · musicians. R ’E 6=“ . U ignore overlook neglect pursue go in for in pursuit of aspire after be down and out mutually come out be published priority primarily appreciate notion profession lucrative n stem from subordinate ... to ... recreation physical health psychological making money is not an end in the end of itself. acknowledge strike a balance overriding X v = · ª factor Ug U U 5= “ 1. Admittedly, � � �� � � � � ¤ ¥ D fairy tale � � � � � � � 7 @ � X B • “ * financial gain does be an important factor in choosing a career. 2. ˜ q Ł + � � B • “ * � � ¨ regard it as the most important… � after all, � p Ł + � � � � � � � p K B E � � � � I B E � � � � IB E � � � �P I B E � � � � A • “ * � � A • “ * � pay less than p others � � social work, nursing. @ @ � � � � �@ K B E � � � � ˛� �� � � � � ˛ Q › + � � K B E � � � �� � 3. + � � � � � � � ˛ Q › + � � p K B E � � � � I B E � � � � I B E � � � � ‘ I B E even though this job ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � � � +� � can provide her less money than those far from her home. X B • “ * � promotion� � � �� � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � �� � 7 @ � � � � � View1: Financial gain is an important factor in choosing a career. View2: However, there are more factors play important roles in making job decisions. chance for promotion, .·ª A .·ª A V ·ª V ·ª V = training, work environment, corporate culture and reputation, welfare other than financial form Evidence: Vincent Van Gogh .If he transfer to other career for monetary consideration, there will be no such beautiful scenes as starry night and sunflowers shining forever in our art history. View3: In my opinion, the best career is the combination of special interests and financial benefits. Financial gain is certainly one factor to consider when selecting a career. But many people do not, and should not, focus on this factor as the main one. The role that money plays in career choice should depend on the priorities, goals and values of the particular person making the choice. The main problem with selecting a career primarily on the basis of money is that for many people to do so would be to ignore one’s personal values, needs, and larger life goals. Indeed, many people appreciate this notion when they choose their career. For example, some people join one of the helping professions, such as nursing, teaching or social work , well aware that their career will not be financially lucrative. Their choice properly stems from an overriding altruistic desire, not from an interest in financial gain. Others choose to pursue intellectual or creative fulfillment—as writers, artists, or musicians—knowing that they are trading off dollars for non­tangible rewards. Still others forego economic gain to work as full­time parents; for these people, family and children are of paramount importance in life. Finally, many people subordinate economic prospects to their desire to live in a particular location; these people may place a high value on recreation, their physical health, or being near a circle of friends. Another problem with focusing primarily on money when selecting a career is that it ignores the notion that making money is not an end in the end of itself, but rather a means of obtaining material goods and services and of attaining important goals—such as providing security for oneself and one’s family, lifelong learning, or freedom to travel or to pursue hobbies. Acknowledging the distinction, one may nevertheless select a career on the basis of money—since more money can buy more goods and services as well as the security, freedom, and time to enjoy them. Even so, one must strike a balance, for if these things that money is supposed to provide are sacrificed in the pursuit of money itself, the point of having money—and of one’s career selection—has been lost. In conclusion, economic gain should not be the overriding factor in selecting a career. While for a few people the single­minded pursuit of wealth may be fulfillment enough, most people should, and indeed do, temper the pursuit of wealth against other values, goals, and priorities. Moreover, they recognize that money is merely a means to more important objectives, and that the pursuit itself may undermine the achievement of these objectives. 32. “You can tell the ideas of a nation by its advertisements.” “¨ L , ¶ ª A á Fkª’ W , ” 1. È . B · ª A idea À idea n a formulated thought or opinion p è ° ’ E T ’E 6 =“ idea a mere picture of a product, service, outlook, or U5= fashion is not an "idea". 2. ˜ q è ° ’ E p . = ·ªV È idea p è ° ’ E idea˜ q è ° ’ E p . = ·ª V È( g¶ U gU U5= “ c ƒ Î* - ’E p 5 dea“ i= À 3. R ’E 6= “ idea n :n U .˜ q è ° ’ E p . = ·ªV È( g¶ ˜ qè ° ’ E p . = ·ªV È( g¶ idea definition reflect reflection mirror exhibit public-interest advertisement appeal petition judging from the preceeding analysis advertisements can not convey an idea, not to mention n showing the idea of a nation.commercial advertisement promotion strategy admittedly environmental conservation negligible true 1. � p è ° ’ E preference ¨ B • “ * � eastern Asia � � � � � � � � proliferation of cosmetic which can impede suntan and make skin appear white¨ < ¶“ * � � Æ % “ + � � R� � � � � western —I B E � � � � @ IB E � � � � A • “* � � A • “ * � � 1 � � � � �� � “ + � � �� � 2. È x B • “ * superficial < � � � � � � � ˛ Q › + � � p K B E �� � � I B E � � � � I B E � �� � ‘ I B E persuade the consumers to buy q Ł + � � � B • “ * � � ¨ < public­ interest advertisements can reflect the concern of specific groups. for example, the environmental… � � � � � � � � ' despite a few variance, many advertisements in different countries appear to be very much similar. � � � � �� � 7 @ � �� � � @ @ � � � � � @K B E � � � � s View1: the most important factor of the evaluation of a AD is its persuasive power. To become more convincing, the designers of the AD always turn to emotional touch by evoking respondence on mass opinions. View2:ADs, whose nature is business promotions, are often dominate by beneficial concerns not national ideas. In order to determine whether advertisements reflect a nation’s ideas, it is necessary to determine whether advertisements present real ideas at all, and,if so, whose ideas they actually reflect. On both counts, it appears that advertisements fail to accurately mirror a nation’s ideas. Indisputably, advertisements inform us as to a nation’s values, attitudes, and priorities—what activities are worthwhile, what the future holds, and what is fashionable and attractive. For instance, a proliferation of ads for sport­utility vehicles reflects a societal concern more for safety and machismo than for energy conservation and frugality, while a plethora of ads for inexpensive on­line brokerage services reflects an optimistic and perhaps irrationally exuberant economic outlook. However, a mere picture of a social more, outlook , or fashion is not an “idea”—it does not answer questions such as “why” and “how”? Admittedly, public­interest advertisements do present ideas held by particular segments of society—for example, those of environmental and other public­ health interest groups. However, these ads constitute a negligible percentage of all advertisements, and they do not necessarily reflect the majority’s view. Consequently, to assert that advertisements reflect a nation’s ideas distorts reality. In truth, they mirror only the business and product ideas of companies whose goods and services are advertised and the creative ideas of advertising firms. Moreover, advertisements look very much the same in all countries. Western and Eastern alike. Does this suggest that all nations have essentially identical ideas? Certainly not. In sum, the few true ideas we might see in advertisements are those of only a few business concerns and interest groups; they tell us little about the ideas of a nation as a whole. 33. “People are likely to accept as a leader only someone who has demonstrated an ability to perform the same tasks that he or she expects others to perform.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� @ KB E ”7 i @ 1. & U g@ Ì €c ª ’” e o °Ðv¯ ª H v ·ª@ KB E ^ ƒ Î W’ QpKB E commander-in-chief È p =·ª V U5 = “ a 7i @ 2. & Ì € w ª’ E o °Ðv¯ ª H v ·ªR ’E 6=“ @K B 3. È ( g¶ª V á / h ª’ E R ’ ” leader m q © è °“ · ,˜ E ’ j = ·ª V È(g U5 = “ a 7i @ normal human feelings admire adore respect superior to evade escape military service subordinate soldier be doubtful of be suspicious of execution implement admittedly true potentially evaluate index leadership psychological psychology psychologic psychologist exist subsist ...in ... serves as a fitting and public example ƒÎ *-’ E 1. ( � ¨ < ¶“* � �Æ% ª ’ E 2. ˜ ó A•“* �� A ·ª V R D p5 =“ ’E ÿ 8= “ ð 8 = “ layperson. � � � � � � � � ` IT ¨ B • “ MICROSOFT �� ���� �� ' Ì €w ª’ E y a n 2 adhere to their strategic plans h g B · ª A yü on the other hand, � p Ł + � � � � � � � � � � specific task. 3. q Ł + � � ‘ B • “ * � � ¨ < significantly different functions� � � � � � � � subordinate � � � � unfair 8 @ • “ * � blame a CEO for lacking the skills of typing q Ł + � � ‘ B• “ * � � ¨ < ¶ R � � � + � � �J BE � � � � � � � � � � � � @ K omnipotent worker with all kinds of skills. View1: It is human nature to admire then follow someone who is more competent than themselves. View2: But a feature of a good leader is to organize people with different specialities together and let them perform as a whole. It is too ideal to expect the leaders to have all the specialities of his subordinates. People are more likely to accept the leadership of those who have shown they can perform the same tasks they require of others. My reasons for this view involve the notions of respect and trust. It is difficult for people to fully respect a leader who cannot, or will not, do what he or she asks of others. President Clinton’s difficulty in his role as Commander­in­Chief serves as a fitting and very public example. When Clinton assumed this leadership position, it was well known that he had evaded military service during the Vietnam conflict. Military leaders and lower­level personnel alike made it clear that they did not respect his leadership as a result. Contrast the Clinton case with that of a business leader such as John Chambers, CEO of Cisco Systems, who by way of his training and experience as a computer engineer earned the respect of his employees. It is likewise difficult to trust leaders who do not have experience in the areas under their leadership. The Clinton example illustrates this point as well. Because President Clinton lacked military experience, people in the armed forces found it difficult to trust that his policies would reflect any understanding of their interests or needs. And when put to the test, he undermined their trust to an even greater extent with his naive and largely bungled attempt to solve the problem of gays in the military. In stark contrast, President Dwight Eisenhower inspired nearly devotional trust as well as respect because of his role as a military hero in World War II. In conclusion, it will always be difficult for people to accept leaders who lack demonstrated ability in the areas under their leadership. Initially, such leaders will be regarded as outsiders, and treated accordingly. Moreover, some may never achieve the insider status that inspires respect and trust from those they hope to lead. 34. “All citizens should be required to perform a specified amount of public service. Such service would benefit not only the country as a whole but also the individual participants.” “: Ì€y ª ’ W I 2 °Ð v ¯ ª A 0 v .· ªA ” 1. & & 2. & s . 2 V 0 v . · ª A° Ð v ¯ ª hp B· ªA . 3. ˜ ó 4 · ª A ˜ó4 · ª A — Ì€y ª’W s . 2 È( ,¶ ªA áFk ª ’ W \ ’ W be not worth the candle mandatory compulsory ...be weighed against ... individual compliance enforcement nullify stifle incompetence competent tantamount to n insofar as... 1. ˜ q è ° ’ E '• U · ª V È mandatory social work �� � � � � � � ——† ¶ social work wage � @ @ � � � � �@ K B E � � � � j �� � � ƒ Î*-’E p 5 =“ extensive participation � � � qŁ — —� ‘ B • “ * � � ¨ < , h B • “ A expense on the maintaining. h B • “ * becomes a aggregation of the hard work of all the citizens. h B • “ * � ,h B • “ Ì€y ª ’ W Ì€y ª ’ W y Ì€y ª ’ W s s . . 2 2 °Ð v ¯ ª A n 0 v . · ª A °Ð v ¯ ª 0 v .· ªA 2. E w B · ª A : The principal thing in this world is to keep one’s soul aloft. Flaubert the great novelist ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � S � � � + duty, � � � � � � � � ł › E ; � � � � � � � � ł › , � � ( B • “ * � � , ( B • “ * . 3. � , � � � � � � � � ł stimulate � emotion of repellence, Ł B • “ * ,� �� � � � � � ł › E . View1: public service, a main approach to show social responsibilities, benefits both the county and the participants. View2: When becomes a burden and stress to the participants, public service harm not only individual performers but also entire society. Cost of enforcement, reduction of efficiency , increase of abhorrence. The potential benefits of mandatory public service must be weighed against administrative problems and concerns about individual liberty. On balance, the costs to a nation and to the participants would probably exceed the benefits. Admittedly, a colorable argument can be made for mandatory public service. It would help alleviate “ free­rider” problems, where those who do not contribute benefit from the efforts of those who do. It would mitigate pressing social problems—with education, public health and safety, and the environment. It might instill in participants a sense of civic duty, community, and individual responsibility. Finally, it has worked on a smaller scale, particularly in urban areas, where renewal projects succeed in making communities safer, healthier, and more prosperous. Far more compelling, however, are the arguments against mandatory public service. First, who would make assignments and decide what projects are worthwhile, and how would compliance be assured? Resolving enforcement issues would require government control, in turn requiring increased taxes and/or cuts in other social programs, thereby nullifying the benefits of mandatory public service. Second, a mandatory system would open the floodgates to incompetence and inexperience. Finally, the whole notion seems tantamount to Communism insofar as each citizen must contribute, according to his or her ability, to a strong state. Modern history informs us that such systems do not work. One could argue that mandatory public service is simply a tax in the form of labor rather than dollars. However, compulsory labor smacks of involuntary servitude, whereas financial taxes do not. In conclusion, logistical and philosophical barriers to mandating public service outweigh its potential benefits for the nation as well as for participants. 36. “Businesses and other organizations have overemphasized the importance of working as a team. Clearly, in any human group, it is the strong individual, the person with the most commitment and energy, who gets things done.” “� ° Ð v ¯ ªA 0v. · ª A Z 4 ÿ. , ÐZ “· ªA ð ; È ¶ªA ” The author's assert brings in the controversail and complex question that is being discussed a lot now : teamwork or individual energy and commitment, which one is more important to a company or other types of organizaitons? The author claims that teamwork has been overemphasized. To the contrary, I believe that is the author who makes an overemphasis by saying "It is the strong individual, the person with the most commitment and engergy, who gets things done. 1. & €Ì w ’ª E a n ° Ðv¯ ª V 0 v a · ªV b ΃ * ’- E p5=“ ÿ8=“ ð 8=“ `8 2. ˜ q è ° ’ E mj = ª · V È(g¶ .è v = · ª V ,S ’E 6=“ .n U ˜ q è°’ E mj = ª · V È , p è°’ E , . -ø 3. È ( g ¶ ª V / h ’ª E á R ’E .˜ q è ° ’ E mj = ª · V È .è v = · ª V ,è v = · ª V ,n è v =·ª V, . ø regimentation è v = · each does his or her own duty technology organic organically View1: efficiency comes from work divisions. In today’s business world, it is unpractical for one person to accomplish an entire program. Actually, only every competent person finishes one part of the mission, entirely whole program get done. View2: An organization is not simply put competent people together but combine them to form a organic integrity, thus induce higher efficiency an productivity. The relationship between teamwork and individual strength, energy, and commitment is complex; whether they operate in a complementary or antagonistic manner depends on: (1) the goals toward which the traits are directed, (2) the degree of emphasis on teamwork , and (3) the job of the individual within an organization. A person’s ability to work effectively in a team is not in consistent per se with personal strength, energy, and commitment. If exercised in a self­serving manner—for example, through pilfering or back stabbing—these traits can operate against the organization. Conversely, if directed toward the firm’s goals, these traits can motivate other team members, thereby advancing common goals. World War II generals Patton and Rommel understood this point and knew how to bring out the best individual qualities in their troops, while at the same time instilling a strong sense of team and common purpose. Nevertheless, over­emphasizing teamwork can be counterproductive for an organization. A successful team requires both natural leaders and natural followers; otherwise, a team will accomplish little. Undue emphasis on teamwork may quell initiative among natural leaders, thereby thwarting team goals. Also, teamwork can be overemphasized with a commissioned sales force of highly competitive and autonomic individuals. Overemphasis on teamwork here might stifle healthy competition, thereby defeating a firm’s objectives. In other organizational areas, however, teamwork is critical. For example, a product­development team must progress in lock­step fashion toward common goals, such as meeting a rollout deadline. In sum, individual strength, commitment, and energy can complement a strong team approach; as long as individual autonomy is not undermined, all can operate in a synergistic manner to achieve an organization’s goals. 37. “Since science and technology are becoming more and more essential to modern society, schools should devote more time to teaching science and technology and less to teaching the arts and humanities.” “ ó4·ª A ˜ ó 4 ·ª A — Ì €y ª ’ W I 2 ” 1. ˜ q è ° ’ W o D B ·ª A È L,¶ . .For — example, recent studies of cognitive development show that studying music at an early age can strengthen a child's later grasp of mathematics. And understanding philosophical concepts has helped scients recognize their own presuppositions, and frame their central questions more accurately. 2. U g U U5=“ x ΃ * - ’ E . p 5=“ 3. R ’E 6=“ how toU5 = “ do n should we do .... . This is not to say, however, that ... . To the contrary mathematicians cognitive strengthen grasp philosophical philosophy presupposition presumption premise assumption intellectual inspire dominate predominate autonomous autonomy liberal arts n contemporary ï8=“ à 8 =“ —8 =“ ˜ ó J· ª V ˜ ó J · corporation in ªV 1. p K = “ q Ł + �� B • “ * � � ¨ < ¶ which most of the daily affairs are dealt with the aid of computer � IT � � 2. . � � � � �� 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � � " � �provide people with gracious spirit. : � � � � � � � “ + � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � — vfl “ * � � H v • “ * � � � � � nuclear weapons; heroin is made by people with standard chemistry knowledge… with the guide of virtue, science can be the best servant of human; however, on the other hand, without such guide, it can become the most dangerous weapon. 3. false dilemma. The speaker falsely put the school in a dilemma by suggesting the teaching of science and that of arts are mutually exclusive. � � � � � � � � £ E • Because scient View1: primarily and secondary school, whose main function is to teach general knowledge and more important, to shape healthy personality, should place at least as much attention on the arts and humanities as they do on science and technology View2: Contrarily, university and college should devoted more time on teaching science and technology as they are becoming more and more essential to our modern society. However, it dose not mean the Arts and humanities is not important and the time devoted to it should be decreased. Universities can increase the teaching hour on science and technology by ways such as employ more professors and open more available classroom to provide more courses at the same time. View3: science and technology are becoming more and more important, yet, we still can not underestimate the importance of the arts and humanities. Learning form predecessors’ experience and great personalities can lead to great efforts devoted to work and thus better performance. Science and technology tell us who to do, but humanities tell us what should to . ific knowledge is increasingly important in our technological world and in the practical world of jobs and careers, schools should devote sufficient time to teaching mathematics and science. This is not to say, however, that schools should devote less time to the arts or humanities. To the contrary, in a technological age the study of arts and humanities is probably more important than ever—for three reasons. First of all, studying the arts and humanities can help students become better mathematicians and scientists. For example, recent studies of cognitive development show that studying music at an early age can strengthen a child’s later grasp of mathematics. And understanding philosophical concepts has helped scientists recognize their own presuppositions, and frame their central questions more accurately. Secondly, studying the creative and intellectual achievement of others helps inspire our own creativity and intellectual questioning. This is particularly important in an era dominated by technology, where we run a serious risk of becoming automatons who fit neatly into the efficient functioning of some system. Finally, technology is valuable as an efficient means to our important goals. But neither technology, nor the science on which it is founded, decides which goals are best, or judges the moral value of the means we choose for their attainment. We need the liberal arts to help us select worthwhile ends and ethical means. In conclusion, schools should not devote less time to the arts and humanities. These areas of study augment and enhance learning in mathematics and science, as well as helping to preserve the richness of our entire human legacy while inspiring us to further it. Moreover, disciplines within the humanities provide methods and contexts for evaluating the morality of our technology and for determining its proper direction. 39. “It is difficult for people to achieve professional success without sacrificing important aspects of a fulfilling personal life.” “ 9o* * ,* * ?B 6 /” 1. p è °’ W 2. * ? B6 . 9 o* 3. R ’W & B6 * ?B 6 4. 1. cost of living, growing population, increasingly scarce resource… all contribute to a radical competitive society. Ł B• “ force people to work longer hours, � , � � � � � � � � £ E personal life. � p Ł + � � � � � � � � � :Ł B • “ * lack of social welfare, � � � population explosion, � � 2. è Ö , q Ł + � � j 9 • “ * � � ¨ , � � � , 8 E • “ * � , � p Ł � close scrutiny will reveal that � � , � � � , � � � exacerbate j 9 • “ * � � � � � � � � � Ł E , 8 E • “ * � � , � � � � � � � � Ł E overtime. . +� � � � � � � � � � . intensity. 8 E • “ , View1: a fulfilling personal life guarantees a healthy mind and energetic body which enhance professional performance. View2: Having a joyful career to devote to also in turn help to ensure a fulfilling personal life. View3: if to achieve professional success must have something to sacrifice, the things may not necessarily the important aspects of personal lives. Are professional success and a fulfilling personal life mutually exclusive? Probably not, although it is more difficult today to achieve both. Undeniably, today’s professionals must work long hours to keep their heads above water, let alone to get ahead in life financially. This is especially true in Japan, where cost of living, coupled with corporate culture, compel professional males to all but abandon their families and literally to work themselves to death. While the situation here in the states (United States) may not be as critical, the two­income family is now the norm, not by choice but by necessity. However, our society’s professionals are taking steps to remedy the problem. First, they are inventing ways—such as job sharing and telecommuting—to ensure that personal life does not take a backseat to career. Second, they are setting priorities and living those hours outside the workplace to the fullest. In fact, professional success usually requires the same time­management skills that are useful to find time for family, hobbies, and recreation. One need only look at the recent American presidents—Clinton, Bush, Reagan, and Carter—to see that it is possible to lead a balanced life which includes time for family, hobbies, and recreation, while immersed in a busy and successful career. Third, more professionals are changing careers to ones which allow for some degree of personal fulfillment and self­actualization. Besides, many professionals truly love their work and would do it without compensation, as a hobby. For them, professional fulfillment and personal fulfillment are one and the same. In conclusion, given the growing demands of career on today’s professionals, a fulfilling personal life remains possible by working smarter, by setting priorities, and by making suitable career choices. 40. “With the increasing emphasis on a global economy and international cooperation, people need to understand that their role as citizens of the world is more important than their role as citizens of a particular country.” “ ó 4 · ªA ˜ ó4 · ªA — Ì €yª’W I 2 ” 1. è Ö6 · 2. ; ƒ Îé - ’W p?B6 ÿ 'B6 ð 'B 6 ` 3. È ( , ¶ ª A á Fk ª ’W $ ’W n supersede compatible be compatible with... citizenship domain This one person would be acting consistently as a citizen of community, state, nation and world.admittedly conflicting obligation arise dual Admittedly, conflicting/clashing/discordant obligations sometimes arise as a result of our new dual citizenship.obligatory In sum, although our "dual" citizenship may at times lead to conflict, one role need not automatically take precedence over the other. more often than not The relationship between the two roles is, more often than not, a complementary one, and can even be synergistic. synergistic coactive complement complementary supplement 1. 2 , � � è Ö 6� � è ,� è � , . è � , � , � , � . � � � èÖ 6 ,� p è° ’ W . � , 8 6· ª , � p è° ’ W , � � . shift the burden and threats from one nation to another… � : � � � ,� p Ł + � � � � � � � � .8 E • “ * � , � � � , � � � � � � � � ‚ , � short­sight and narrow mind, � interdependent. 2. � � � � � � ‚ R discard or weaken their role as citizensof one nation. ‚ E • “ * � incompatible, � � � , � � � complementary one—and can even be synergistic. � the preservation of traditional culture, ‚ E • “ * � � ,� � � � � � � � ‚ R F , ‚ E • “ * � � diversity of culture � � positive effort. , ‚ E • “ * public service ‚ E • “ * � , � p Ł + � � � � � � � � � compassion and responsibility, E• “ � � � charitarian � � � � � � � � ‚ R F • subsidize the school in one public service , E • “ attention to the education in the international scope. nation View1: people’s role as citizens of the world is become more and more important in the modern society. View2: Without the awareness of being citizens of a particular country, people will find no roots to behave on the stage of the world. View3: these two roles, national and international, are not mutually exclusive alternatives. They can be properly combined. With the growth of the global economy and the need for international cooperation, every human being has assumed a role as citizen of the world. Does this mean that our roles as citizens of our respective nations are thereby superseded by our role as world citizens, as the speaker suggests? Not at all. Good citizenship at one level is often compatible with good citizenship at another. In fact, being a good citizen in one social domain can help one be a better citizen in another. Good global citizenship is not incompatible with good citizenship at other levels. Consider, for example, one’s efforts as a citizen to preserve the natural environment. One particular person might, for example: (1) lobby legislators to enact laws preserving an endangered redwood forest, (2) campaign for nationally­elected officials who support clean air laws, and (3) contribute to international rainforest preservation organizations. This one person would be acting consistently as a citizen of community, state, nation and world. Admittedly, conflicting obligations sometimes arise as a result of our new “dual” citizenship. For example, a U.S. military official with an advisory role in a United Nations peace­keeping force might face conflicting courses of action—one that would secure U.S. military interests, and another that would better serve international interests. However, the fact that such a conflict exists does not mean that either action is automatically more obligatory—that is, that one’s role as either U.S. citizen or world citizen must invariably supersede the other. Instead, this situation should be resolved by carefully considering and weighing the consequences of each course of action. Moreover, being a good citizen in one social context can often help one be a better citizen in another. For example, volunteering to help underprivileged children in one’s community might inspire one to work for an international child­welfare organization. And inculcating civic values—such as charity and civic pride—may give rise to personal traits of character that transfer to all social domains and contexts. In sum, although our “dual” citizenship may at times lead to conflicts, one role need not automatically take precedence over the other. Moreover, the relationship between the two roles is, more often than not, a complementary one—and can even be synergistic. 42. “Scientists are continually redefining the standards for what is beneficial or harmful to the environment. Since these standards keep shifting, companies should resist changing their products and processes in response to each new recommendation until those recommendations become government regulations.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� � p è °’ ” ° Ðv ¯ ª” Hv ·ªZ A ÿ F Ð Zw·ªð6ȶ ª À 1. 2. p? BE $ ï IB E ’” JB E àI B E PI BE @K B ˜óA · ª- ˜óA· ª - 3. ˜ ó 4· ª A — * ? B6 . split the difference lag evaluate ˜ó 4· ª A Ì € yª ’ W 9o* I . 2 View1: The recommendations given by scientists are usually controversial or have inconsistent perspectives on same questions, thus can not provide clear directions on actions that companies should adopt, View 2: changing products and processes too often will inevitably increase cost and lower productivity. Therefore do harm to the companies . View3: while waiting for government regulations may draw back the processes of solving the problems, it is relatively a better strategy for companies to follow. We can count on the authorities to speed up the process of conversion between scientific discoveries and official regulations. The speaker argues that because scientists continually shift viewpoints about how our actions affect the natural environment, companies should not change their products and processes according to scientific recommendations until the government requires them to do so. This argument raises complex issues about the duties of business and about regulatory fairness and effectiveness. Although a wait­and­see policy may help companies avoid costly and unnecessary changes, three countervailing considerations compel me to disagree overall with the argument. First, a regulatory system of environmental protection might not operate equitably. At first glance, a wait­and­see response might seem fair in that all companies would be subject to the same standards and same enforcement measures. However, enforcement requires detection, and while some violators may be caught, others might not. Moreover, a broad regulatory system imposes general standards that may not apply equitably to every company. Suppose, for example, that pollution from a company in a valley does more damage to the environment than similar pollution from a company on the coast. It would seem unfair to require the coastal company to invest as heavily in abatement or, in the extreme, to shut down the operation if the company cannot afford abatement measures. Secondly, the argument assumes that the government regulations will properly reflect scientific recommendations. However, this claim is somewhat dubious. Companies with the most money and political influence, not the scientists, might in some cases dictate regulatory standards. In other words, legislators may be more influenced by political expediency and campaign pork than by societal concerns. Thirdly, waiting until government regulations are in place can have disastrous effects on the environment. A great deal of environmental damage can occur before regulations are implemented. This problem is compounded whenever government reaction to scientific evidence is slow. Moreover, the EPA might be overburdened with its detection and enforcement duties, thereby allowing continued environmental damage by companies who have not yet been caught or who appeal penalties. In conclusion, despite uncertainty within the scientific community about what environmental standards are best, companies should not wait for government regulation before reacting to warnings about environmental problems. The speaker’s recommended approach would in many cases operate inequitably among companies: moreover, it ignores the political­corruption factor as well as the potential environmental damage resulting from bureaucratic delay. 45. “The most effective way for a businessperson to maximize profits over a long period of time is to follow the highest standards of ethics.” “ 9o * *,* *?B6 ” ; d 1. 2. 3. Ì€ y ª ’ W ƒÎ é - ’ W p è ° ’W ˜q è ° ’W p è ° ’W bD B · ª A I p?B6 ÈL . ÿ'B6 2 ð' B 6 `' °Ð v¯ª A 0 v .· A ª AI034 Ø s U · ª 1. U · ª V reputation and trust; � , � p Ł + � � � � � � � service, � � � stable share of the market; � , � � � � � � � �x E • ( @ • “ ). � attract those applicants with high ability and keep the employees loyal to the company­­­ @ • “ * productivity. U·ª V , Bayer, one of the largest pharmaceutic companies in the world, announced that the company would cease � production of one of its major products, because of the hazardous ingredients it contained. By doing so, the company suffers great loss on profitability, but gains strong public support and understanding, which can contribute to the long­ term success of the company. 2. @ •“ * equal to maximal profit. � ,a, � � � � � � � � E • , � � executive � complete the normal administration, such as raising the price, reducing the —— � � @ K Bost­effective. � superabundant staff… b, X � � � + � � � J B E � � � � � � � � c Ø t @ •“ * � � , ������ � � Following such undue concern about ethics, the company may find it impossible to survive in the radical competitive market, let alone to gain large profit. View1: the definition of highest standards of ethics vary from person to person and time to time. Therefore, it is impractical to find and then stick to the highest standards of ethics. View2: the regulations and laws of authorities are more feasible and suitable standards to follow. View3: while waiting for government regulations may draw back the processes of eliminating the ill actions, we can count on the authorities to speed up the process of refining the laws and regulations. The speaker claims that following high ethical standards is the best way to maximize profits in the long run. However, this claim seems to be more of a normative statement than an empirical observation. The issue is more complex than the speaker suggests. In my observation, the two objectives at times coincide but at other times conflict. In many ways behaving ethically can benefit a business. Ethical conduct will gain a company good reputation that earns repeated business. Treating suppliers, customers and others fairly is likely to result in their reciprocating. Finally, a company that treats its employees fairly and with respect will gain their loyalty which, in turn, usually translates into higher productivity. On the other hand, taking the most ethical course of action may in many cases reduce profits, in the short run and beyond. Consider the details of a merger in which both firms hope to profit from a synergy gained thereby. If the details of the merger hinge on the ethical conviction that as few employees as possible should lose their jobs, the key executives may lose sight of the fact that a leaner, less labor­intensive organization might be necessary for long­ term survival. Thus, undue concern with ethics in this case would results in lower profits and perhaps ultimate business failure. This merger scenario points out a larger argument that the speaker misses entirely­that profit maximization is per se the highest ethical objective in private business. Why? By maximizing profits, businesses bestow a variety of important benefits on their community and on society: they employ more people, stimulate the economy, and enhance healthy competition. In short, the profit motive is the key to ensuring that the members of a free market society survive and thrive. While this argument might ignore implications for the natural environment and for socioeconomic justice, it is a compelling argument nonetheless. Thus the choice to follow high ethical standards should not be made by thinking that ethical conduct is profitable. While in some cases a commitment to high ethical standards might benefit a company financially, in many cases it will not. In the final analysis, businesses might best be advised to view their attempts to maximize profits as highly ethical behavior. 48. In matching job candidates with job openings, managers must consider not only such variables as previous work experience and educational background but also personality traits and work habits, which are more difficult to judge. What do you consider essential in an employee or colleague? Explain, using reasons and/or examples from your work or worklike experiences, or from your observations of others. u g ƒ Î Q - ’+ i pK B E ÿI B E ð IBE ° Ð v ¯ª * ` H vs· ª* and/or � � � � � � Z p© > ÿs S ��� �� 7g@ @S @ @K B E z 1. ˜ ó A • “ * ˜ ó A · ª* 8 Ì € / ª’ + u s i ˜ó A• “* ˜ ó A · ª* 8 Ì € / ª’ + u s i 2 2. Y � � � � Ì € / ª ’+ u s i ° Ð v ¯ª * Hvs · ª * ˜q Ł + Ð • E · ª* È< S 3. ˜ ó A • “ * ˜ ó A · ª* 8 Ì € / ª’ + u s i ˜ ó A• “* ˜ ó A · ª* 8 Ì € / ª’ + u s i honest honesty dishonest dishonesty loyal loyalty instead An employee with excellent expertise and a lot of previous work experience but dishonest and not loyal to the company will sometimes do no good to the company while do harm instead, because they may use their expertise and experience to do something that can benefit themselves while damage the company. optimistic pessimistic optimism pessimism negative positive index quantify recessive likewise compatible interdependent dependent independent quantifiable Thesis sentence: in spite of work experience and education background, there are many other factors, which are difficult to judge, essential in job candidates selection. View1: Loyalty is an important factor in determine whether a candidate will make contribution to the company. View2: people’s attitudes towards life is also affect much on work performance. Positive ,passive, initiative, creative View3: Communication and cooperation abilities become more and more important in today’s business world. Team work, harmonious personnel environment In the hiring process, it is more difficult to assess personality and work habits than to determine work experience and educational back ground. Even so, it is important to try and judge the less quantifiable characteristics of a prospective colleague or employee—such as honesty, reliability, creativity, self­ motivation, and the capacity to get along and work well with others. If it doesn’t seem obvious that these are important qualities in a coworker, then consider the alternatives. First of all, dishonest or unreliable workers harm an organization in many ways. Dishonest employees impose costs on a company whether they steal on the grand or small scale; just taking a few days of unwarranted sick leave here and there can add up to significant lost productivity. And lying about progress on a project can result in missed deadlines and even lost contracts. Unreliability works the same way; if an employee cannot meet deadlines or fails to appear at important meetings, the organization will suffer accordingly. In addition, coworkers who lack motivation or creativity take some of the life out of an organization. To the extent that employees simply plug along, the company will be less productive In contrast, employees who have imagination and the motivation to implement ideas are productive and can spark those around them to greater achievement. Finally, employees who cannot get along with or work well with others can as well be detrimental to the organization. The mere presence of a troublemaker is disruptive; moreover, the time such people spend on petty disagreements is time away from getting the job done successfully. In addition, those who cannot smoothly coordinate their efforts with others will end up making things more difficult for everyone else. In conclusion, it may not be easy to judge the personality traits and work habits of prospective employees, but it certainly is worth the effort to try. Having coworkers who are honest, reliable, creative, self­motivated, compatible with one another and good team players will greatly enhance everyone’s work life, and benefit an organization in the most significant way—with greater productivity. 57. “Everywhere, it seems, there are clear and positive signs that people are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences.” , “@ * *? B 6 F ƒ Î é - ’W p? B” � 1. 2. 3. Ðx Ð' B 6 ˜ó 4 ·ªA p è °’W p? B 6 *' B 6 ˜ó 4 ·ª A ï' B 6 ˜ó 4·ªA — à' B6 ˜ ó 4 · ªA Ì € y ª ’W ='B6 q I ˜ó 4·ª A Ì€ y ª’W . 2 ˜ó 4 ·ª I 1. The increased globalization has provided more opportunities than ever before to contact and acknowledge cultures of other nations. ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � Y � � � + � � more tolerant attitude toward dissimilar culture, including religion and custom from other nations. � � � China had long closed itself to the outside of the world for many centuries before it opened the door in 1980’s. ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � T � � � + � � considered to be strange or rude. ( = • “ * � � ¨< ¶“ *�� Æ% “ + ��R �� � +� even learn from � � 2. p Ł + ��� �� � � legislation ( = • “ * � � to some extent ( = • “ discrimination and prejudice still remain severe despite of the legislation… � � � racial, gender q Ł + � � A ∙ “ * � � ¨ < � pŁ + � � ������ perceived inequity still exist since � p Ł + � � � � � � � � 3. � � � � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � sign of… � � � � � � � � x ) — Hearst Corporation __celebrate differences among people and make active use of the varied perspectives that workers from different backgrounds bring to the job. View1: our legislation and moral tend to eliminate bias and prejudice based on difference. View2: better communication and broader cooperation teach people to respect deference In determining whether we are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences, one must examine both overt actions and underlying motives, as well as examining whether our differences are increasing or decreasing. The issue, therefore, is quite complex, and the answer is unclear. Disrespect for one another’s differences manifests itself in various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Since the civil rights and feminist movements of the 60s and 70s, it would seem that we have made significant progress toward eliminating racial and sexual discrimination. Anti­discriminatory laws in the areas of employment, housing, and education, now protect all significant minority groups racial minorities and women, the physically challenged and, more recently, homosexuals. Movies and television shows, which for better or worse have become the cynosure of our cultural attention, now tout the rights of minorities, encouraging acceptance of and respect for others. However, much of this progress is forced upon us legislative. Without Title 10 and its progenies, would we voluntarily refrain from the discriminatory behavior that the laws prevent? Perhaps not. Moreover, signs of disrespect are all around us today. Extreme factions still rally around bigoted demagogues; the number of “hate crimes” is increasing alarmingly; and school­age children seem to flaunt a disrespect toward adults as never before. Finally, what appears to be respect for one another’s differences may in fact be an increasing global homogeneity—that is, we are becoming more and more alike. In sum, on a societal level it is difficult to distinguish between genuine respect for one another’s differences on the one hand and legislated morality and increasing homogeneity on the other. Accordingly, the claim that we are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences is somewhat dubious. 60. “Employers should have no right to obtain information about their employees’ health or other aspects of their personal lives without the employees’ permission.” “, ƒÎ é - ’W p ?B6 ÿ'B6 ð' B 6 ` 'B” q è°’W °• 6 · ªA È L , ¶ productivity and turnover¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � � � + S� �� +� � �J B E� ���� � �� ����@ ? B 6 expect to get certain productivity. ¨ ¿ ? ∙ “ * � � �pŁ + � � �� ��� � � � suffer q Ł + � � E • “ * � � ¨ A • “* � � A•“ * � �8 � �� �� �� “ + � � � � � . 2 2 infect other employee/ � history of crimes violence C � � � + � � � J B E � � �� � � � � � � � � @ K 32 È < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + �� V � � � + � � threat to others employer � pŁ + � � � � � � � � +� � �� �� � marital status, religion, race… �p Ł with permission ¨ ¿ ? ∙ “ * � � force 1 View1: as human resources is one of the most important fortunes to a company, companies should know the health conditions of their employees. Decide whether a worker is competent for a job, decide cost on medical cares, ensure productivity View2: other aspects of employees’ personal life, if not directly related to work performance, are not need to expose to employers. Determining whether employers should have access to personal information about employees requires that the interests of businesses in ensuring productivity and stability be weighed against concerns about equity and privacy interests. On balance, my view is that employers should not have the right to obtain personal information about current employees without their consent. A business’ interest in maintaining a stable, productive workforce clearly justifies right of access to certain personal information about prospective employees. Job applicants can easily conceal personal information that might adversely affect job performance, thereby damaging the employer in terms of low productivity and high turnover. During employment, however, the employee’s interests are far more compelling than those of the employer, for three reasons. First, the employer has every opportunity to monitor ongoing job performance and to replace workers who fail to meet standards, regardless of the reason for that failure. Second, allowing free access to personal information about employees might open the floodgates to discriminatory promotions and salary adjustments. Current federal laws—which protect employees from unfair treatment based on gender, race, and marital status, may not adequately guard against an employer’s searching for an excuse to treat certain employees unfairly. Third, access to personal information without consent raises serious privacy concerns, especially where multiple individuals have access to the information. Heightening this concern is the ease of access to information which our burgeoning electronic Intranets make possible. In sum, ready access to certain personal information about prospective employees is necessary to protect businesses; however, once hired, an employee’s interest in equitable treatment and privacy far outweighs the employer’s interest in ensuring a productive and stable workforce. 62. “What education fails to teach us is to see the human community as one. Rather than focus on the unique differences that separate one nation from another, education should focus on the similarities among all people and places on Earth.” “� � ” ° Ð v¯ª A 0v. ·ª A Z O ÿ. V Ð Z “ ·ª A b ¹O· ª A Àvè° 1. 2. 3. It is important for the education to teach us the unity. It is important for us to identify with others since no one can live without others. While it is also important for the education to teach us the diverstity for us to better understand and respect others. Which is more important is hard to say. Both the unity and the diversity should be taught. View1: It is very important for education to teach us unity. Since all nations interact with each other more and more thoroughly, no one is an island in the world. Evidence: unify citizens from diverse backgrounds, reduced ethnic, religious or political factions and wars. Improve cooperation, mutual altruism and finally harmonious humanity View2: While it is also important for education to teach us diversity in order to improve understanding and respect between nations. Evidence: democratic ideal of tolerance, educating people about diversity might even produce a unifying effect— by promoting understanding and appreciation among people from all backgrounds. This view of education seems to recommend that schools stress the unity of all people instead of their diversity. While I agree that education should include teaching students about characteristics that we all share, doing so need not necessarily entail shifting focus away from our differences. Education can and should include both. On the one hand, we are in the midst of an evolving global community where it is increasingly important for people to recognize our common humanity, as well as specific hopes and goals we all share. People universally prefer health to disease, being nourished to starving, safe communities to crime­riddled ones, and peace to war. Focusing on our unity will help us realize these hopes and goals. Moreover, in our pluralistic democracy it is crucial to find ways to unify citizens from diverse back grounds. Otherwise, we risk being reduced to ethnic, religious or political factions at war with one another, as witnessed recently in the former Yugoslavia. Our own diverse society can forestall such horrors only if citizens are educated about the democratic ideals, heritage, rights and obligations we all have in common. On the other hand, our schools should not attempt to erase, ignore, or even play down religious, ethnic or cultural diversity. First of all, schools have the obligation to teach the democratic ideal of tolerance, and the best way to teach tolerance is to educate people about different religions, cultures and so on. Moreover, educating people about diversity might even produce a unifying effect—by promoting understanding and appreciation among people from all back grounds. In conclusion, while it may appear paradoxical to recommend that education stress both unity and diversity, it is not. Understanding our common humanity will help us achieve a better, more peaceful world. Toward the same end, we need to understand our differences in order to better tolerate them, and perhaps even appreciate them. Our schools can and should promote both kinds of understanding by way of a balanced approach. 65. “The rise of multinational corporations is leading to global homogeneity*. Because people everywhere are beginning to want the same products and services, regional differences are rapidly disappearing.” * homogeneity: sameness, similarity Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion expressed above. Support your point of view with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. ' “— B 6 * 'B6 ˜ ó4 · ªA ˜ó 4· ª A q Ì€ y ª ’ W ” 1. 2. 3. The so-called cultural innovation does exists. Let's take KFC as an example. Its standard design, decoration and food supplied in every chain all around the world influence people consume its product and service. However, to say the multinational corporations do no good to promote and improve the unique culture of the nations where their branches are located is very imprudent. Ideally, the multinational corporations should incorporate the culture of the target country's cultrue with the corporate culture and the culture it belongs to. 2 12 Ð ' B 6 *' B6 ˜ó 4·ªA ˜ó 4·ª A Ì € yI ª ’ W empirical à' B6 =' B6 ˜ ó 4 · ª A let alone ˜ó4· ª evidence: p K B E � � � � I B 6 qŁ + �� o q´ª A È KFC fast food q Ł + � � o q´ª A ÈL ,¶ 22 Moreover, q Ł + � � o q´ª A È on much deeper level¨ < ¶“ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � � � ’ qŁ +�� o2∙“* � � ¨< Panasonic � � � � � � � � ¨ [ F • transmit democratic principles, while ‚9 ∙ “ *� publicize the thoughts of Mao, or Confucius… � � � � � � � � ¨ custom‚ 9 ∙ “ *� � � � � � �� � ¨ celebrate the Valentine’s Day, q Ł + � � o 2 ∙ “ * � � ¨ < ¶ Spring Festival� �p Ł + � � � � � � � � Optional words: Homogeneity/ homogeneous/ homogenize/ Difference/ divergence/ deviation/ variance/ disagreement/ conflict Thesis sentence: View1: the development of multinational corporations does enhance global unity by bringing the same methods of business administration as well as products and services throughout the world. Evidence: western fast food bring by global chain express such us McDonald’sand KFC have change our diet habits a lot View2: however, the effect of multinational corporations is far from eliminating regional deference. The corporations itself is blend in the regional features. Evidence: Lay’s, one of the most successful multinational food manufacturers, add some flavor of traditional Asian dishes to its potato chips in order to attract foreign customers. Although global homogeneity in a broader sense may not be as inexorable as the speaker here suggests, I agree that multinational corporations are indeed creating global sameness in consumer preferences. This homogeneity is manifested in two concurrent megatrends: (1) the embracing of American popular culture throughout the world, and (2) a synthesis of cultures, as reflected in consumer preferences. The first trend is toward Americanization of popular culture throughout the world. In food and fashion, once a nations denizens “fall into the Gap” or get a taste of a Coke or Big Mac, their preferences are forever Westernized. The ubiquitous Nike “swoosh,” which nearly every soccer player in the world will soon don, epitomizes this phenomenon. In media, the cultural agendas of giants such as Time­Warner now drive the world’s entertainment preferences. The Rolling Stones and the stars of America’s prime­time television shows are revered among young people worldwide, while Mozart’s music, Shakespeare’s prose, and Ghandi’s ideology are largely ignored. A second megatrend is toward a synthesis of cultures into a homogenous stew. The popularity of “world music” and of the “New Age” health care and leisure­time activities aptly illustrate this blending of Eastern, Western and third­world cultures. Perhaps nowhere is the cultural­stew paradigm more striking, and more bland (blander), than at the international “food courts” now featured in malls throughout the developed world. These trends appear inexorable. Counter­attacks, such as Ebonies, rap music, and bilingual education, promote the distinct culture of minority groups, but not of nations. Further homogenization of consumer preferences is all but ensured by failing trade barriers, coupled with the global billboard that satellite communications and the Internet provide. In sum, American multinationals have indeed instigated a homogeneous global, yet American­style, consumerism—one which in all likelihood will grow in extent along with free­market capitalism and global connectivity. 66. “Manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that their products are safe. If a product injures someone, for whatever reason, the manufacturer should be held legally and financially accountable for the injury.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion expressed above. Support your point of view with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “ óA·ª * ˜ó A ·ª * 7 Ì €/ª ’+ u i ” 1. 2. 3. Manufactures are resposible for providing the consumers with safe and reliable products and they are also responsible for supplying clear and detailed instrctions. That is the basic requirement for a qualified manufacture. To satisfy the need of the consumers for convenient and user-friendly product will benefit the manufacture at the same time. Because during the process in pursue of the consumers' satisfaction the manufactures have to make innovations and a lot of P&D, which will enhance the manufactures and make them competetive in the rival with others. However, if the manufacture has already done well to provide excellent and safe product plus clear and detailed instructions and it is the consumers' misconduct that should be blamed for the incidence, then the manufacture is not responsible for the injury. View1: safe is one of the most important features of products View2: the extremely strict standard of safe liability is costly and unfair to the manufacturers. Evidence: this standard force manufactures to do excessive safety testing, and defending liability law suits, Consumers are then damaged by ultimately bearing these costs in the form of higher prices. nothing can be absolutely safe if used inappropriately. while manufacturers have given clear guide on how to keep and use their product, it is still impossible for manufactures to ensure their products being under proper use. More over, a large number of victims are not direct customers but second-hand users, who can not receive all instructions and guidance. In determining whether manufacturers should be accountable for all injuries resulting from the use of their products, one must weigh the interests of consumers against those of manufacturers. On balance, holding manufacturers strictly liable for such injuries is unjustifiable. Admittedly, protecting consumers from defective and dangerous products is an important and worthwhile goal. No doubt nearly all of us would agree that health and safety should rank highly as an objective of public policy. Also, compelling a high level of safety forces manufacturers to become more innovative in design, use of materials, and so forth. Consumers and manufacturers alike benefit, of course, from innovation. However, the arguments against a strict­liability standard are more compelling. First, the standard is costly. It forces manufacturers to incur undue expenses for overbuilding, excessive safety testing, and defending liability law suits. Consumers are then damaged by ultimately bearing these costs in the form of higher prices. Second, the standard can be unfair. It can assign fault to the wrong party; where a product is distributed through a wholesaler and/or retailer, one of these parties may have actually caused, or at least contributed to, the injury. The standard can also misplace fault where the injured party is not the original consumer. Manufacturers cannot ensure that second­hand users receive safe products or adequate instructions and warnings. Finally, where the injured consumer uses the product for a purpose or in a manner other than the intended one, or where there were patent dangers that the user should have been aware of, it seems the user, not the manufacturer, should assume the risk of injury. In sum, despite compelling interests in consumer safety and product innovation, holding manufacturers accountable for all injuries caused by their products is unjustifiably costly to society and unfair to manufacturers. 68. “Since the physical work environment affects employee productivity and morale, the employees themselves should have the right to decide how their workplace is designed.” “, ƒ Î * -’ E p 5=“ ÿ8 =“ ð 8 =“ ” `8 1. brings creativity and coziness 2. makes colleagues more closely and companionate 3. Admittedly, some companies such as consulting/consultant? company must avoid too much decoration. However, no matter the employee or the employer, as for the environment is considered, compromise should be made from time to time. View1:work character have great influence on the design of workplace. Evidence: consulting company must avoid too much decoration in order to appear professionally and dependably. To some creative work such as AD agency and fashion design, the decorating of workplace is important not only for simulating inspirations but also for showing creative abilities. View2: also, the designment of workplace should be compromise to company culture. Evidence: Consider the influence it has done to co-workers and the harmony in work place. I agree that physical workspace can affect morale and productivity and that, as a result, employees should have a significant voice in how their work areas are designed. However, the speaker suggests that each employee should have full autonomy over his or her immediate workspace, I think this view is too extreme, for it ignores two important problems that allowing too much freedom over workspace can create. On the one hand, I agree that some aspects of workspace design are best left to the individual preferences of each worker. Location of personal tools and materials, style and size of desk chair, and even desk lighting and decorative desk items, can each play an important role in a worker’s comfort, psychological wellbeing, concentration, and efficiency. Moreover, these features involve highly subjective preferences, so it would be inappropriate for anyone but the worker to make such choices. On the other hand, control over one’s immediate workspace should not go unchecked, for two reasons. First, one employee’s workspace design may inconvenience, annoy, or even offend nearby coworkers. For example, pornographic pinups may distract some coworkers and offend others, thereby impeding productivity, fostering ill­will and resentment, and increasing attrition—all to the detriment of the company. Admittedly, the consequences of most workspace choices would not be so far­reaching. Still, in my observation many people adhere, consciously or not, to the adage that one person’s rights extend only so far as the next person’s nose. A second problem with affording too much workspace autonomy occurs when workspaces are not clearly delineated—by walls and doors—or when workers share an immediate workspace. In such cases, giving all workers concurrent authority would perpetuate conflict and undermine productivity. In conclusion, although employees should have the freedom to arrange their work areas, this freedom is not absolute. Managers would be well­advised to arbitrate workspace disputes and, if needed, assume authority to make final decisions about workspace design. 75. “There are essentially two forces that motivate people: self-interest and fear.” “ qè ° ’W € 9• ´ª A ÈL,” Self-interest an fear are two important forces that motivate people. But I can not totally agree with the author's assertion that the above-mentioned two forces are the only forces that motivate people. 1. Fear and other survival instinctions can motivate people to do some basic and essential activities such as eating, drinking, living with others, and so on so forth. 2. Self interest is the initiative for people to do some further explortions. That is the motivation for us to study, to hold a certain type of expertise or technology, etc. 3. However, the author ignore the other aspect of mankind other than the selfish nature--altruism. % +� � 0 ¶ “ * � � ¨ < support the family � � 1. ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ “ + � � R � � � + �a, q Ł � education and training to make sure that he or she can grasp the up to date knowledge and +� � 0 ¶ “*� �¨ skills for the purpose to avoid being supplanted by others. ¤ ¶ “ b, q Ł reputation 2. p Ł +� � ��� � � root in these only two factors, � � � one­sided ¤ ¶ “ * � other aspects of ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + �� R � � � ¤ ¶ “ * a, ¤ ¶ “ the natural humanity selfishness and fear ���� ���� p address the problem of starvation, the better rice breed. b, anonymous charitarian donate huge amount of money to the school and hospital…people can hardly be persuaded to believe that the anonymous charitarian doing so are only motivated by the intention of gaining reputation. 3. ¨ • ¶ “ Optional words: Motivate/ provoke/ stimulate/ excite/ prompt/ arouse/ encourage/ incite/ inspire Fear/dread/ alarm/ terror/ scare Thesis sentence: While self-interest and fear are two important forces that motivate people, they are not the only forces that motivate people. the speaker oversimplifies human nature, ignoring the important motivating force of altruism. View1: On the one hand, I agree that most of our actions result in large part from selfinterest and from our survival instincts, such as fear. Evidence: educational and vocational lives are motivated by interest in ensuring our livelihood, safety, health and so on. View2: On the other hand, the assertion that all of our actions are essentially motivated by self-interest and fear is based on the belief that human beings are essentially selfish, or egoistic. Thus, overemphasize one aspect of human nature. Humans are also altruistic—that is, we act to benefit others, even though doing so may not in be in our own interest. Evidence: The speaker claims that people are motivated only by fear and self­interest. This claim relies on the belief that human beings are essentially selfish, or egoistic. In my view, the speaker oversimplifies human nature, ignoring the important motivating force of altruism. On the one hand, I agree that most of our actions result in large part from self­interest and from our survival instincts, such as fear. For example, our educational and vocational lives are to a great extent motivated by our interest in ensuring our own livelihood, safety, health, and so on. We might perpetuate bad personal relationships because we are insecure—or afraid—of what will happen to us if we change course. Even providing for our own children may to some extent be motivated by selfishness—satisfying a need for fulfillment or easing our fear that we will be alone in our old age. On the other hand, to assert that all of our actions are essentially motivated by self­interest and fear is to overemphasize one aspect of human nature. Humans are also altruistic—that is, we act to benefit others, even though doing so may not be in our own interest. The speaker might claim that altruistic acts are just egoistic ones in disguise—done to avoid unpleasant feelings of guilt, to give oneself pleasure, or to obligate another person. However, this counter argument suffers from three critical problems. First, some examples of altruism are difficult to describe in terms of self­interest alone. Consider the soldier who falls on a grenade to save his companions. It would be nonsensical to assert that this soldier is acting selfishly when he knows his action will certainly result in his own immediate death. Second, the argument offends our intuition that human motivation is far more complex. Third, it relies on a poor assumption; just because we feel good about helping others, it does not follow that the only reason we help is in order to feel good. In sum, the speaker oversimplifies human nature. All human motivation cannot be reduced to fear and self­interest. We can also be motivated by altruism, and the pleasure we might take in helping others is not necessarily an indication that our actions are selfish. 81. “No one can possibly achieve any real and lasting success or ‘get rich’ in business by conforming to conventional practices or ways of thinking.” “, ƒÎé - ’W p?B6 ÿ' B 6 ð 'B6 ‘` ’6 get rich' � ” 1. A conformist can achieve any real success especially lasting success. Real and lasting success needs innovation and hard work. Just to conform does not make any sense. Through imitating others, one can only become an artisan-painter rather than an artist; without any innovation, a scientific worker can never be acknowledged as a scientist. 2. Likewise, no one can "get rich" in business merely conform to the existing practices. 3. However, what I mentioned above does not mean that conventions have no value at all. We should not only know the conventions but also have a deep insight of it, thus getting the information of the domain that indicates what kind of innovation can be made and how make. 1 Eternal truths will be neither true nor eternal unless they have fresh meaning for every new social situation. (Franklin Roosevelt, American president) Growth and change are the law of all life. Yesterday's answers are inadequate for today's problems ­­­­just as the solutions of today will not fill the needs of tomorrow. (Franklin Roosevelt, American president) pŁ + Franklin Roosevelt As President Franklin Roosevelt said, “…” 12 � � � � � � � merely!!�� � � � � � � ´ < long­lasting success � � � consumer-driven industries, 2 22 2 innovative and different products X t Á ¶ ª A it is ridiculous for a abacus manufactory cannot compete with the calculator factory by producing better abaci. X t Á ¶ ª A keep up with the development of the market. 22 x L • ´ ª A financial achievement 2 business principles. 2 a, 2 efficiency, 2 cost x L • ´ ª ˜ ——° ’ W =tÁ ¶ ªA È L , ¶ b, X t Á ¶ ª A reputationX t Á ¶ ª A consumer. ——X t Á ¶ ª A 2 c, $ ’W &B 6 carry some*? B responsibility for the whole community2 Thesis sentence: Whether a conformist can achieve lasting success or "get rich" in business depends primarily on the type of business involved. Iconoclasts rise to the top in newer industries and in those where consumer demand is in constant flux. Conformists ultimately prevail, however, in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations. View1: In consumer-driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and creativity are crucial to lasting success Evidence: retail and media sectors. And in technology, companies that fail to break away from last year's paradigm are soon left behind by the competition. View2: However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—lasting success and riches come not to nonconformists but rather to those who can deliver services most effectively within the confines of established practices, policies, and regulations. Evidence: CitiBank gain high reputation for its insistence in comprehensively considerate services Whether a conformist can achieve lasting success or “get rich” in business depends primarily on the type of business involved. Iconoclasts rise to the top in newer industries and in those where consumer demand is in constant flux. Conformists ultimately prevail, however, in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations. In consumer­driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and creativity are crucial to lasting success, in the retail and media sectors, for example, unconventional products and advertising are necessary to catch the attention of consumers and to keep up with the vagaries of consumer tastes. Those who take an iconoclastic approach tend to recognize emerging trends and to rise above their peers. For example, Ted Turner’s departure from the traditional format of the other television networks, and the responsiveness of Amazon.com to burgeoning Internet commerce, propelled these two giants to leadership positions in their industries. And in technology, where there are no conventional practices or ways of thinking to begin with, companies that fail to break away from last year’s paradigm are soon left behind by the competition. However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—lasting success and riches come not to nonconformists but rather to those who can deliver services most effectively within the confines of established practices, policies, and regulations. Of course, a clever idea for structuring a deal, or a creative legal maneuver, may play a role in winning smaller battles along the way. But such tactics are those of conformists who are playing by the same ground rules as their peers; winners are just better at the game. In conclusion, while non­conformists tend to be the wildly successful players in technology­driven and consumer­driven industries, traditionalists are the winners in system­driven industries pervaded by policy, regulation, and bureaucracy. 87. “As technologies and the demand for certain services change, many workers will lose their jobs. The responsibility for those people to adjust to such change should belong to the individual worker, not to government or to business.” ' “— B 6 *'B 6 ˜ú4· ªA ˜ ú 4· ª A Ì €yª ’ W I” 12 The government should be responsible for the adjustment of the workers. If all the citizens should be responsible for themselves, there is no use for the government to exist. 22 The government should also force the business to involve in the project. Because the government itself is incapable of doing so without concrete knowledge of each certain industry. In the long run, doing so will also benefit the business. 32 Admittedly, the workers should not rely on others to help them to adjust to varying situations. They themselves should adapt their skills and knowledge to the change of the industry and of the society. job obsolescence assume some of the responsibility 12 — ’ B · A ª take the chief responsibility of their job obsolescence. È L , ¶ ª A á Fkª ’W $ ’ * ?B6 . keep o *with the changes of the technologies 9 up and new direction of businesses % ’W &B6 merely rely on*the help ? coming from government or business — ’ B· ª A become passive and lose enterprise. ¸% 2 negative impact on the further development of one society. 22 pè°’ W after all, $ ’W &B6 job —— * ? B 6 obsolescence ˜ qè° ’W H ’B·ªA È L opportunity of training for the new technique… ¸ % V· totally new employee 2 cost2 32 Moreover, L , ¶ ª A È á F kª ’ W $ ’W supervisor well being. X D B · ª ¸% X D B · ª adjustment. X D B · ª A insurance for unemployment, advice for the occupational choice, necessary information of the new trend of business… Thesis sentence: While individuals have primary responsibility for learning new skills and finding work, both industry and government have some obligation to provide them the means of doing so View1: l agree that individuals must assume primary responsibility for adjusting to job obsolescence, especially since our educational system has been preparing us for it View2: However, industry should bear some of the responsibility as well. It is industry, after all, that determines the particular directions technological progress and subsequent social change will take. Moreover in the long run, doing so will also benefit the business. View3: Government should also assume some of the responsibility, since it is partly government money that fuels technological progress in industry. Moreover, government should help because it can help—for example, by ensuring that grants and federally insured student loans are available to those who must retool in order to find new work. Government can also help by observing and recording trends in worker displacement and in job opportunities, and by providing this information to individuals so that they can make prudent decisions about their own further education and job searches. As technology and changing social needs render more and more jobs obsolete, who is responsible for helping displaced workers adjust? While individuals have primary responsibility for learning new skills and finding work , both industry and government have some obligation to provide them the means of doing so. l agree that individuals must assume primary responsibility for adjusting to job obsolescence, especially since our educational system has been preparing us for it. For decades, our schools have been counseling young people to expect and prepare for numerous major career changes during their lives. And concerned educators have recognized and responded to this eventuality with a broader base of practical and theoretical coursework that affords students the flexibility to move from one career to another. However, industry should bear some of the responsibility as well. It is industry, after all, that determines the particular directions technological progress and subsequent social change will take. And since industry is mainly responsible for worker displacement, it has a duty to help displaced workers adjust —through such means as on­site training programs and stipends for further education. Government should also assume some of the responsibility, since it is partly government money that fuels technological progress in industry. Moreover, government should help because it can help—for example, by ensuring that grants and federally insured student loans are available to those who must retool in order to find new work. Government can also help by observing and recording trends in worker displacement and in job opportunities, and by providing this information to individuals so that they can make prudent decisions about their own further education and job searches. In conclusion, while individuals should be prepared for future job changes, both government and industry shoulder obligations to provide training programs, funding and information that will help displaced workers successfully retool and find new employment. 100. “If a nation is to ensure its own economic success, it must maintain a highly competitive educational system in which students compete among themselves and against students from other countries.” “: Ì€w ª’E y n °Ð v ¯ ª V ” 0va · ªV 12 advantage: make students better prepared for the future competition, etc. 22 disadvantages:very pressure and stressful 32 a refined educational system is preferred View1: education play a very important part in determine a nation’s economic success. Employees, government regulation strategies, corporate management level, technology—competitive power of products View2: as the development of open market and global economy, education is also required to face international challenge. Although sometimes competition might produce desired results such as efficiency and productivity, I still believe that our national economic success will be better promoted by an educational system that encourages cooperative learning among students, and with students from other countries. being competitive fixes our focus externally, on marking and beating the progress of others with whom we compete. Such external motivation can direct our attention away from creative solutions to our problems, and away from important human values like cooperation and fair play. Indeed, a highly competitive environment can foster cheating and ruthless back­stabbing within an organization, and ill­will and mistrust among nations. In the extreme case, competition between nations becomes war. I don’t think it is a good idea to design an educational system that focuses mainly on competition. For although a little competition might produce desired results, in the long run too much competition will be destructive. Instead, I believe that our national economic success will be better promoted by an educational system that encourages cooperative learning among students, and with students from other countries. Granted, competitiveness is an important aspect of human nature. And, properly directed, it can motivate us to reach higher and produce more, not to mention meet deadlines. But being competitive fixes our focus externally, on marking and beating the progress of others with whom we compete. Such external motivation can direct our attention away from creative solutions to our problems, and away from important human values like cooperation and fair play. Indeed, a highly competitive environment can foster cheating and ruthless back­stabbing within an organization, and ill­will and mistrust among nations. In the extreme case, competition between nations becomes war. On the other hand, an environment of cooperation encourages us to discover our common goals and the best ways to achieve them. At the national and international levels, our main interests are in economic wellbeing and peace. In fact, economic success means little without the security of peace. Thus, global peace becomes a powerful incentive for developing educational models of cooperative learning, and implementing exchange programs and shared research projects among universities from different countries. Moreover, research suggests that cooperative settings foster greater creativity and productivity than competitive ones. This has been shown to be the case both in institutions of higher learning and in business organizations. If true, it seems reasonable to argue that national economic success would be similarly tied to cooperative rather than competitive effort. In conclusion, competition can provide an effective stimulus to achievement and reward. Even so, I believe it would be unwise to make competition the centerpiece of our educational system. We stand to reap greater benefits, including economic ones, by encouraging cooperative learning. 106. “All archeological treasures should remain in the country in which they were originally discovered. These works should not be exported, even if museums in other parts of the world are better able to preserve and display them.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� ° Ðv¯ ª V 0 va· ªV Z J ÿa ; Ð Z l· ª V à ô µ ”ª V ¶ 12 22 ˜ q è ° ’ E 32 U 5 =“ ` j =· ª V È U 5 =“ a a ’1 U ’1 U View1: generally speaking, original countries is best place to preserve and display their antique treasures. Evidence: cultural recognition, historical integrity , show respect to the original counties. Examples: It’s a great shame and pity for all Chinese to see our antique treasures, which originally belonged to the palace of Qing dynasty and be robbed during the First World War, displaying in the Great British museum. View2: However, under some circumstance, it could be better to transport the antiques to other places for better preservation. Evidence: war, the authority ignore the value of certain antiques or lack the ability to properly preserve it: skills, But when condition permitting, the treasures should be returned to their mother country. Whether archaeological treasures should remain in the countries where they are found is a complex and controversial issue. I sympathize with the view that antiquities should remain in the country of their discovery. But given real­word considerations, it is sometimes best to place archaeological treasures wherever they will be safe and well­preserved. Recent antiquities laws throughout the world reflect my point of view that the ancient treasures of a place should remain there. It seems outrageous that Greeks or Egyptians must visit the British Museum to see the best remnants of their distant past; and this link is grounds for a vague but justified claim to ownership. However, cultural ownership is only one consideration. Historically, ancient treasures have been most interesting to two groups: scholars and robbers. Admittedly, the two are sometimes indistinguishable, as when Schliemann stole out of Turkey with an immense trove of what he mistakenly thought was King Priam’s treasure. Schliemann eventually placed his collection in the relatively safe hands of national museums, where it took the vicissitudes of war to destroy part of it. But none of Schliemann’s find would be available to the Turkish people or the world if plunderers had got there first. Often, the plunderers do get there first. When Carter found the tomb of Tutankhamen, tomb­robbers, largely Egyptian, had carried off the treasures from bombs of other pharaohs. The fact that the world, including the Egyptians, have the exhaustively cataloged and well­preserved wonders of the Tutanhkamen find is owing to Carter and his associates. This, then, becomes the only argument for exporting ancient treasures to safer locations: it is a lesser evil than not having the treasures at all. In sum, it is usually best to leave archaeological treasures within the country of their discovery. Even so, it is sometimes necessary to relocate them. This, however, leaves open two important and related issues: which specific situations justify relocation; and, whether there is ever an obligation to restore collections to the country where they were found. 107. “The most effective way for managers to assign work is to divide complex tasks into their simpler component parts. This way, each worker completes a small portion of the task but contributes to the whole.” “< Ì €yª ’ W I 2 °Ð v ¯ ª A 0 v. · ª A ” 12 pè° ’ W 22 ˜ q è ° ’ W 32 2 leader ïö ª A È =Í case by case. ˆ¶“ *� 1 big and complex project � � � � � � � � P ˝ < a, � � � � � � � � P ˝ <• take much more time q Ł +� � Ł ˆ¶ “ * � � ¨ < b, � p Ł +� � � � �� � � � each member can choose the part that she or he are good at. ˆ ¶ “ * eliminate the total amount of time to complete the whole task. 22 � � �� � � � P ˝ literally divide � � � � � � � � P coherent reasoning. ˆ ¶ “ * close related. � � �p Ł + � �� �� ��� � � communication � � ��� � � � P ˝ < collective goal adequate �pŁ +����� ��� comprehension prerequisite to meet the two needs is � � � � � � � � P ˝ < • �p Ł +�� �� � �� team leader � � � �� � � � P ˝ provide effective guide and lead the team to adhere to the collective goal (common purpose). phrases: fragment work into small units; Distinct divisions of labor; stifle creativity; undermine self-motivation and pride in one’s work; collaboration=cooperation; Of course, unproductive employees can be replaced. But replacement is costly; and high employee turnover is bad for organizational morale.­­­­­ pŁ + View1: work division and assignment is an efficient way to get things done. However, merely dividing work among workers can not assure the final accomplishment of the task. Evidence: fragmenting work into small units leads to employee alienation, Those responsible for only a detailed component of a project can easily lose sight of larger organizational goals and their own importance in achieving them. then become less committed to their work, and less productive. In addition, the lack of overall conception may lead to adjusting difficulties. Moreover, Compartmentalizing tasks can stifle cooperation. View2: However, team work is not to simply add one component to another, but to organically conform all components together. The stated opinion is that the most effective way for managers to assign work is to divide complex tasks into their simpler component parts. This strategy is probably cost­effective in many situations. However, I think that it works against important organizational values over time. Distinct divisions of labor are efficient for a number of reasons. First of all, workers with few highly specific skills are usually cheaper to hire than those with broader education and experience. Secondly, it is less expensive to train employees in narrow areas. Finally, strict compartmentalization of tasks makes it easier for managers to control employees, and, therefore, to control and increase productivity. But however profitable this strategy might be in the short run, it can ultimately work against the organization. To begin with, fragmenting work into small units leads to employee alienation. Those responsible for only a detailed component of a project can easily lose sight of larger organizational goals and their own importance in achieving them. Research indicates that they then become less committed to their work , and less productive. Of course, unproductive employees can be replaced. But replacement is costly; and high employee turnover is bad for organizational morale. In addition, compartmentalizing tasks can stifle creativity, as well as undermine self­motivation and pride in one’s work. With little collaboration or even communication between discrete work units, larger creative insights are lost. And, cooperative efforts usually foster a series of common purpose and pride in accomplishment. Of course, diversifying jobs and increasing worker participation in larger projects could lead to lower productivity. But the experience of large manufacturing corporations like General Motors shows just the opposite. When GM facilities implemented these and other strategies to improve work­ place quality, they reported that productivity increased. In conclusion, I believe that organizing work into discrete tasks will compromise important organizational values like creativity, self­motivation, commitment and pride in accomplishment. So, although there are times when small divisions of labor will be necessary, generally work should be diversified, and workers should have greater involvement in projects overall. 110. “All personnel evaluations at a company should be multi-directional — that is, people at every level of the organization should review not only those working ‘under’ them but also those working ‘over’ them.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “ ú A ·ª ˜ úA · ª8 Ì € cª’” h o ” 12 ˜ q è ° ’ ” 22 X D B · ª A 32 pè °’W • aH ´ ª- È< / bureaucratism The speaker asserts that employees at all levels in an organization should review one another, including those working “over” them as well as “under” them. I agree in part. Often companies will conduct two different kinds of periodic review, one to justify decisions regarding promotion and pay, and another to increase overall efficiency by assessing employee performance. Multi­directional evaluation should never be part of the first kind of review; however, it can be valuable in the second kind and, therefore, should be used there. On the one hand, lower­level employees have too much organizational power if their evaluations are used in decisions about the pay or promotions of their superiors. Employees can intimidate superiors with the threat of bad review. Also employees can use the review process to retaliate against those at higher levels. In either case, the authority of a manager or an executive can be seriously compromised, and productivity is lost in the process. On the other hand, the most revealing criticisms of a superior’s style often come from those subject to it. In a process of review that isn’t connected to promotion or pay, employees at all levels can be more comfortable and forthright about sharing concerns. In turn, every employee is more likely to get accurate feedback , including constructive criticism, that will help each nurture strengths and improve areas of weakness. In this way (adv. directional evaluation can greatly enhance organizational efficiency. Furthermore, multi­directional evaluation in this context helps prevent worker alienation and subsequent lowered productivity. Widening the performance review process will very likely foster a greater sense of personal involvement in one’s work , especially among lower­level employees. Recent studies have shown that people who feel more invested in their jobs tend to work more cooperatively and productively. In conclusion, there is an important role for multi-directional personnel evaluation in the workplace. While it should be clearly separate from issues of promotion and pay, as part of the performance review process it can encourage better employee relations and higher productivity. ), multi­ 111. “The most effective business leaders are those who maintain the highest ethical standards.” “¨ L , ¶ ª A á F kª ’ W , ’” 1 x f B · ª A , x B · ª A reputation and trust; � , � p Ł + � � � � � � � service, � � � stable share of the market; � , � � � � � � � � z • (x B • “ ). � attract those applicants with high ability and keep the employees loyal to the company­­­x B • “ * productivity. Bayer, one of the largest pharmaceutic companies in the world, announced that the company would cease � production of one of its major products, because of the hazardous ingredients it contained. By doing so, the company suffers great loss on profitability, but gains strong public support and understanding, which can contribute to the long­ term success of the company. 22 x B •“ * � � , x x B•“* � � B •“ * equal to maximal profit. � ,a, � � � � � � � � z • , � � executive � � complete the normal administration, such as raising the price, reducing the —— � � @ K B superabundant staff… b, X � � � + � � � J B E � � � � � � � � cost­effective. � Following such undue concern about ethics, the company may find it impossible to survive in the radical competitive market, let alone to gain large profit. View1: the definition of highest standards of ethics vary from person to person and time to time. Therefore, it is impractical to find and then stick to the highest standards of ethics. At some circumstance, violation of ethics may generate immediate efficiency and productivity. Examples: ?? View2: the regulations and laws of authorities are more feasible and suitable standards to follow. View3: while waiting for government regulations may draw back the processes of eliminating the ill actions, we can count on the authorities to speed up the process of refining the laws and regulations. The assertion at issue is that business people who uphold the highest ethical standards are the most effective leader. I strongly agree with this statement. For a while, unethical behavior might seem effective. But a few examples from the investment banking industry keenly illustrate how dishonesty and corruption in leadership can bring a business to its knees, shattering the trust of its employees and ruining its reputation with clients. Consider the cases of Michael Milken, former head of junk bond trading at Drexel Burnham Lambert, and Paul Mozer, formerly in charge of Salomon Brothers’ government bonds trading. Each of these men engaged in double­dealing and other illegal acts, reaping tremendous profits for their companies, and winning the admiration of subordinates and superiors alike. However, their successes were relatively short­lived. Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) investigations in each case revealed massive wrongdoing. As a result, Drexel went out of business. And Salomon Brothers barely recovered, after suffering the forced resignations of its top executives, a financially devastating loss of reputation, and the exodus of many valued employees. Moreover, Salomon’s survival is probably owing entirely to its subsequent leadership under Warren Buffett. Buffett, who was on the Salomon Brother board of directors at the time of the scandal, was brought in to save the beleaguered company. His success in keeping it afloat at all can be directly tied to his sterling ethical reputation in the international business community at the time. Buffett’s reputation restored at least some lost confidence among clients and investors, and probably prompted some employees to reconsider their decisions to leave the company. While not every case of unethical leadership is quite so public or devastating as these, they do illustrate an important point. In any business, once corruption at the top becomes known, the predictable outcome will be damaged reputation, lower worker morale, and, along with them, lost productivity. In conclusion, unethical conduct at the leadership level in a company might go unnoticed and serve one’s interests in the short­term. However, in the long run it will work against one’s effectiveness and may even prove ruinous. 112. “The overall quality of life in most societies has never been better than at the present time because of recent advancements in such areas as business and technology.” “ 9o * *,* * ?B 6 1 ” 12 ˜ q è ° ’ W 22 32 o• * · ªA È L ,¶ ˜ double-edged sword ˜– V 1. progress in technology and business � � � � � � � � T F considerable improvement. a, in the �� � material life unprecedented diversity of service and products supermarket hundreds and thousands of products for people to choose� —— + � � � � � � � � � � fresh strawberry b, � �� � in the convenience of our own homes � ˜–V order a dinner via internet c, @ • “ * � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B6 y 2. W � � + � � � J B E � � � � � � � � � � � � @ a, 2 spend more time on television and internet, 2 overlook the necessary communication in the family 2 alienation between the family members. b, 2 2 fast communication on-line p è ° ’ W deprive people of deep and comprehensive thinking. 3. ˜ a, .V – 9o* *,* * ? tB 6 he invention of j laptops provide the possibility for people to continue their work after they leave the company. even on holiday. b, y • * · ª A demand changes every day. 2 accelerate the job obsolescence y • * · ª suffer more pressure and anxiety. The stated opinion is that recent advancements in business and technology have made overall quality of life better than ever. I disagree somewhat with the speaker’s viewpoint. For although such advancements have improved our lives in many respects, they have also diminished our quality of life in other ways. Clearly, progress in business and technology has produced many benefits. For example, we can research problems and their solutions in minutes on the Internet; productivity is at an all­time high. And we can get more done in less time, leaving more time for hobbies, entertainment or other leisure activities. We can even mix a little work into our leisure time, by taking our laptops and cell phones on vacation. This way, we can stay one step ahead on projects at work, anticipating deadlines and staying in touch with co­workers and important clients. In addition, leisure time has itself been enhanced by business and technology. Never before have we had so many spectacular diversions available, or so many leisure­ and entertainment­related businesses vying for our attention. Moreover, we can obtain everything form airline tickets to a language course and holiday wardrobe via the Internet, in the convenience of our own homes. Nevertheless, advances in business and technology have compromised our quality of life as well. For all the wonders of computers, they have spawned their own special illnesses and ailments, like severe eyestrain, back and neck problems, and carpal tunnel syndrome. And though we now have a world of information available in a keystroke, some of this information—like pornography, hate group diatribes and bomb­building instructions—are harming our society, especially our children. Even apparently harmless material, like direct mail advertising and telephone soliciting, is endlessly annoying. Finally, family life is sometimes a casualty of all this progress, with parents and children spending more time transfixed before their computer monitors and less time together. In conclusion, advances in business and technology are a mixed blessing. For while we enjoy many benefits of this so­called progress, in many ways it has changed our lives for the worse. 115. “Technology ultimately separates and alienates people more than it serves to bring them together.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your position with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. " ’E 6=“ U 1. 2. 3. È( g ¶ª V È( g ¶ª V a á / hª ’ E R á / hª ’ E R ’ 1U ’ ’E U gU U5 = “ k I believe there is some truth to the speaker’s claim that technology separates and alienates people. However, there is certainly at least as much evidence that technology serves best to bring people together. The most obvious way that technology separates and alienates people from one another is symbolized by the computer nerd sitting glazed­eyed before his computer screen in a basement, attic, bedroom, or office cubicle. While this scene is a caricature, of course, it’s true that practically everybody who uses email or surfs the Internet does so alone, with only his or her computer for company. And, to the extent that computer use increases the amount of time we collectively spend in solitary activities, it increases the amount of time we spend separated from our fellow humans. On the other hand, technology has been a wonderful aid in bringing people together, or, in many cases, back together. Speaking for myself, I can say that I have become connected with quite a number of people via email with whom I might never have spoken otherwise. These include old friends with whom I had fallen out of the habit of writing regular letters but with whom I now correspond regularly because of the ease with which email can be sent and delivered. A second way in which the new technology has brought people together is by allowing individuals who have common interests to make contact with one another. It is possible to find people who share one’s interest in nearly anything, from aardvarks to zippers. Such contacts may be ephemeral, but they can be a great source of information and amusement as well. I would hazard a guess that for each person who sits neurotically at home, eschewing personal contacts with others in favor of an exclusive relationship with his computer, there are hundreds of others who have parleyed their email capacity and their access to the Web into a continuous succession of new acquaintances. In sum, it seems clear to me that technology has done more to bring people together than to isolate them. 117,129, 130, 131, 132,A12 117. “A government should provide funding for the arts, but only for those artistic works that reflect the values and attitudes of the majority of the population.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “* ƒ Î*- ’ E p 5=“ ÿ8 = “ 8 = “” ð 1. If let the market operates solely can let the efficiency be achieved, it is meaningless for the government to exist. The reason that the government should be established is that there are externalities, either positive or negative. For those phenomena that can cause negative externalities such as the pollution from the chemical factories, the government should do something to eliminate or at least reduce them. For the positive counterparts such as art, the government should do its best to support them, no matter provide funding or something else. 2. However, I can not agree with the second half of the author's idea. As far as I am concerned, the government should support all kinds of art. The function of the government is to best serve the public's interest. Each kind of art has its own appreciators who will get pleasure from it. 3. Moreover, the diversity of culture is also a reason that the government should consider that will be in favor of the support of all kinds of art rather than the support of the ones represent the values and attitudes of the majority population. 129. “Instead of relying on the advice of outside experts, organizations should place greater value on the advice that can come only from their own highly experienced employees.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “A ƒÎé- ’W p ? B6 ÿ ' B6 ð ' B6 ” Ì€yª ’W I 2 °Ð v ¯ ªA 0 v .·ª A 19 p? B 6 ï'B6 à ' B6 = ' B6 ˜ ú 4 ·ª A ú˜ 4 · ª �� � � � � y morale qŁ + HÐ7´ ªA È L ,¶ &B6 * 2 R�� � + , � � � professional adviceq Ł + � � 0 — G ∙ “ * � � ¨ �� �� �� � � operating condition from a more objective sight. q Ł + � �0 — G ∙ “ * � � ¨ < ¶ h B •“ * integrated opinion about the whole company. 3 � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � �� � base their judgment on information from the experienced employees. 1. Admittedly, the insiders are more familiar with the detailed routine of the of the company. They are experts of their own field and they are in charge of the daily activities of the company. All the above-mentioned factors contribute to their competence to make decisions for the company. 2. However, the outsiders also have their advantages. They can judge the performance of a company from an objective angle. 3. Moreover, they can overlook a company, thus providing a perspective to analyze the overall situation. View1: advices from inner highly experienced employees are good resources to improve the performance of the company. Evidence: they are familiar with the circumstance therefore can develop exact perception of the problems. View2: However outside experts have their own advantages in dealing with organizational problems. But outside experts add a wide spectrum of judgment, outlook, and state-of-the-art experience to problems confronting organizations. Conclusion: they are not mutually exclusive alternatives, which one to adopt depend on the specific situations. 130. “When judging the qualifications of potential employees, business employers should rely primarily on objective information, such as a candidate’s résumé and education. Personal interviews are much too subjective and are therefore not a valid basis on which to judge a person’s qualifications for a job.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “� � °Ðv¯ ªA ” 0 v .· ª A Z O ÿ. V Ð Z “·ª A b¹ O ·ªA Àv è ° 1. objective information such as candidate's resume and education is really very important for judging the potential employees. This kind of information can serve as the solid evidence to testify a potential employee's quality. 2. Personal interview is too short a period of time to comprehensively reflect a potential employee's overall qualities. Therefore, personal interview can not be a valid basis on which to judge a person's qualification. What is more, just as the author points out, the personal interviews to which the interviewees' favor can be added are much too subjective. 3. However, it is also too imprudent to eliminate the personal interview. In my opinion, personal interview can supplement the objecive information in judging a potential employee. 1. ) � `' the initial filtration of ƒÎ é - ’W p? B6 ÿ 'B 6 ð 'B6 candidates. � � � � � � � � x ¤ interview � � � solid resource of information. 2. p Ł + � �� ��� � interview ¨ B • “ * , � p Ł + � � �� � � � � � � character� � � � � � � � x ¤ ¨ B • “ character¨ B • “ advertising ¨ B • “ * � creative and originality � � � � � � � � x auditing company ¨ B• “ preciseness � � � � � � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ � � task ¨ B • “ q Ł + ��F ∙ “ * � � ¨ < perform—— have enough skill to handle the specific job and then to take over the job. 3. � p Ł +��� � � ��� � choose candidates to attend the interview � � � interview ¨ B • “ * � � ¨ B •“ * . View1: there are much more information comes from personal interviews other than form objective judgments. Resume and education background can not demonstrate the capability and character of the candidates thoroughly. Social ability: cooperate with others Attitude toward life and work: optimistic or passive, passionate or lazy Characters: loyalty, honest View2: employment is a two way choice, interviews give candidates the opportunity to get more information about the employer and the job requirements. 131. “We can learn more about a society by observing how its people spend their leisure time than by observing them at work.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “p ? B 6 ï'B6 à ' B6 = ' B6 ˜ ó 4 ·ª A ˜ó4 · ªA” 1. 1What people do at work indicates the level of the society's civilizition including the how developed the productivity is, how efficient a society it is, and so on so forth. 2. 2What people do to spend their leisure time reflect the society's civilzition from anthoer perspective. From the literacy of that society we can interpret the citizens' spirit wolrd; from the sports they do we can tell the conditions of their bodies, even from the pure entertainment activities of a society, we can also get some information such as what are the in-things of the society. 3. 3The author's assertion which allege that we can know better of a society from what people do to spend leisure time than from what people do at work is imprudent and groundless. It is obvious that the author overestimate the importance of the understanding of what do people do at work in the comprehensive interpretation of a society. 1. È ( , ¶ ª A á Fk ª ’W $ ’ W , � � � a * ?B 6 . 9o * energetically participate in various kinds of activities after work d 9 • “ * � � b, � � � � � � � � ¨ » � p Ł + � � � � � � � preference � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � � ˛ � � c, � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � � to which degree are people correlated with each other. 2. R � � � + � � � J B E � � � � � � �� � � � � @ K B E the time that people spend on work amounts to the greatest fraction of total life. � � � � � � � ˛ Q › + � � p K B E � � �� I B E � � � � I B E �� � � ‘ � � � � � � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � � product and service demandd 9• “ * � � � � �� � � � � ¨ reflect the values of the community from a different sight. 3. ˜ q Ł +� � f9• “*� �¨< ¶ understand one community more accurately and comprehensively. View1: leisure time represent the society culture changes, vacation and holiday for different nations. Evidence: In china, popular songs that express the emotions of lovers as well as pubs and clubs were strictly forbidden until 1980s, the time that china began its reformation and opening. View2: leisure time is tied to the economic root of the society. Evidence: once viewed as noble exercise, golf has become more and more commonplace and available for more Chinese people. International tour/ travel abroad View3: work does not vary too much, but how to spend the leisure time change greatly from country to country. 132. “Governments should not be responsible for regulating businesses and other organizations. Instead, society would benefit if the organizations themselves assumed responsibility for establishing and enforcing their own standards and regulations.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. “9 Ì€yª ’W I 2 °Ðv ¯ ªA 0 v .·ª A ” 1. Admittedly, the goveronment should not regulate the business or other organizations too much. Too much supervision will harm the development of the business or an organization. 2. Let the business alone to regulate itself will also cause problems. The ultimate goal of the business is to gain benefit, therefore all the activities will serve this pivotal goal even at the expense of the social benefit. 3. The ideal combination can be the midst. 1. too much interference from the government would undoubtedly impede the development of businesses and organizations. 1, q Ł + � � f 9 • “ * � � ¨ positivity. � � � � � � � � ¨ » the � eventually, lead to the less active economy. 2, power of independently making decisions, ��� exorbitant � p Ł + � � � � � � � � � � disturb the natural order of the market. � regulation on the type of product d 9 • “ * excessive demand or supply. d 9 • “ * � � should assume no necessary supervision over the business. � , � , d 9 • “ * � � ��� �� �¨» . � � � , d 9 • “ * � negative results. d 9 • “ * � keep the national market in healthy condition. � � � suitable regulation, � � � � � � � � ¨ � inordinate competition. � Enron cheat on the financial condition. � , � � � � � � � � ¨ » � recession.� � � � � � � � ¨ , � � overcome the huge destroy of the recession. 3. d 9 • “ regulation, � adequate freedom. d 9 • “ * � . 2. View1: if organizations are allowed to establish their own regulations, the enforcement of regulations will be enhanced and the governmental burden of organizations will be released. View2: however, the lack of authoritative and uniform regulations will ultimately do harm to both organizations and entire society. Evidence: disturb of market order, monopoly, unfair competition. To society: Unqualified products, high prices, environmental pollution, waste of resources Do harm to international trade because the lack of uniform standards and the assurance of credit. A12. “Because technology has increased the speed of communication, people are less able to communicate, except on the most superficial level.” Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. 1. ˜ ú J · ª V ˜ ú J· ª V ? Ì€ w ª ’ E y n ˜ú J ·ª V ˜ ú J· ª V ? Ì€ w ª ’ E y n n 2. ˜ ú J · ª V ˜ ú J· ª V ? Ì€ w ª ’ E y n n 3. È - = · ª msn2 OICQ ; ƒ Î*- ’ E p 5=“ ÿ8 = “ 8 =“ ð ÈL , ¶ ªV á / hª ’ E R ’E `8 2 Analysis of Argument Questions 1. The following appeared as part of an annual report sent to stockholders by Olympic Foods, a processor of frozen foods. “Over time, the costs of processing go down because as organizations learn how to do things better, they become more efficient. In color film processing, for example, the cost of a 3-by-5inch print fell from 50 cents for five-day service in 1970 to 20 cents for one-day service in 1984. The same principle applies to the processing of food. And since Olympic Foods will soon celebrate its twenty-fifth birthday, we can expect that our long experience will enable us to minimize costs and thus maximize profits.” p è ° ’W q Ł + � �‘ qŁ + ��‘ aY· ª A aY· ª A processorp K B E � � � � È L , ¶ 3/5 ¨ B • “ * � � È L , 25 � � � � � � � 7 'B6 1970 � o* 5 à'B 6 50cent � *,* 1984 � =' B 6 1 *? B 6 ˜ ú4 ·ª A 20cent�� � � � � � � — Ä ˜ ú4· ªA Ý* 1. 2. 3. false analogy: The food industry is not analogous to the color film industry. causal oversimplification: Other factors that may contribute t to the cost decline of the printing cost should be considered and ruled out. gratuitous assumption: The conclusion of the argument is based on a gratuitous assumption that the company can minimize cost and maximize profit because the company has been conducted for 25 years. ¨ - =· ª color film processing processing of food � � � problems of spoilage, contamination, and 1. timely transportation 2 2. ¨ < , ¶ª A �p Ł á Fkª ’W food 2 $ film. ’ COST (c9 • ªA material necessary for the process + �� � ��� �� 3. gratuitous assumption *? B 6 � � � 7 @ � � � out of date. . Citing facts drawn from the color­film processing industry that indicate a downward trend in the costs of film processing over a 24­year period, the author argues that Olympic Foods will likewise be able to minimize costs and thus maximize profits in the future. In support of this conclusion the author cites the general principle that “as organizations learn how to do things better, they become more efficient.” This principle, coupled with the fact that Olympic Foods has had 25 years of experience in the food processing industry leads to the author’s rosy prediction. This argument is unconvincing because it suffers from two critical flaws. First, the author’s forecast of minimal costs and maximum profits rests on the gratuitous assumption that Olympic Foods’ “long experience” has taught it how to do things better. There is, however, no guarantee that this is the case. Nor does the author cite any evidence to support this assumption. Just as likely, Olympic Foods has learned nothing from its 25 years in the food­processing business. Lacking this assumption, the expectation of increased efficiency is entirely unfounded. Second, it is highly doubtful that the facts drawn from the color­film processing industry are applicable to the food processing industry. Differences between the two industries clearly outweigh the similarities, thus making the analogy highly less than valid. For example, problems of spoilage, contamination, and timely transportation all affect the food industry but are virtually absent in the film­processing industry. Problems such as these might present insurmountable ( c 9 • “ obstacles that prevent lowering food­processing costs in the future. As it stands the author’s argument is not compelling. To strengthen the conclusion that Olympic Foods will enjoy minimal costs and maximum profits in the future, the author would have to provide evidence that the company has learned how to do things better as a result of its 25 years of experience. Supporting examples drawn from industries more similar to the food­processing industry would further substantiate the author’s view. 2. The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee Company. “When the Apogee Company had all its operations in one location, it was more profitable than it is today. Therefore, the Apogee Company should close down its field offices and conduct all its operations from a single location. Such centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and helping the company maintain better supervision of all employees.” 2 Apogee � � � � � � ����� 9o * APogee *? B6 *, * � . *? B 6 p Ł ‚ + 9o * Apogee F � � � + & B6 *?B 6 1. 2. 3. causal oversimplification: It is imprudent to conclude that the establishment of the field offices is the only reason explaining the decline of the profit. all things are equal: The success of the centralization of the past does not guarantee the applicability in the future. either-or-or choice: The author assumes that the centralization and the establishment of field offices are mutually exclusive alternatives, there is no middle ground between they two. In fact, we can have the field offices under centralized control. In this argument the author concludes that the Apogee Company should close down field offices and conduct all its operations from a single, centralized location because the company had been more profitable in the past when all its operations were in one location. For a couple of reasons, this argument is not very convincing. First, the author assumes that centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and streamlining supervision of employees. This assumption is never supported with any data or projections. Moreover, the assumption fails to take into account cost increases and inefficiency that could result from centralization. For instance, company representatives would have to travel to do business in areas formerly served by a field office, creating travel costs and loss of critical time. In short, this assumption must be supported with a thorough cost­ benefit analysis of centralization versus other possible cost­cutting and/or profit­enhancing strategies. Second, the only reason offered by the author is the claim that Apogee was more profitable when it had operated from a single, centralized location. But is centralization the only difference relevant to greater past profitability? It is entirely possible that management has become lax regarding any number of factors that can affect the bottom line such as inferior products, careless product pricing, inefficient production, poor employee expense account monitoring, ineffective advertising, sloppy buying policies and other wasteful spending. Unless the author can rule out other factors relevant to diminishing profits, this argument commits the fallacy of assuming that just because one event (decreasing profits) follows another (decentralization), the second event has been caused by the first. In conclusion, this is a weak argument. To strengthen the conclusion that Apogee should close field offices and centralize, this author must provide a thorough cost­benefit analysis of available alternatives and rule out factors other than decentralization that might be affecting current profits negatively. 6. The following appeared as part of an article in a magazine devoted to regional life. “Corporations should look to the city of Helios when seeking new business opportunities or a new location. Even in the recent recession, Helios’s unemployment rate was lower than the regional average. It is the industrial center of the region, and historically it has provided more than its share of the region’s manufacturing jobs. In addition, Helios is attempting to expand its economic base by attracting companies that focus on research and development of innovative technologies.” ˜ q pè°’W ¨< ¶ “ * áF kª ’ W è ° ’ W Helios �� � � � � V € c Y · *? B6 ª A *? B6 . . 9 o* È L 9 o* h × Y · Helios �� � � � � ’ Helios �� � � � � W 1. 2. p5 B E �� ^ �� + p5 B E �� ˜q Ł + ï' B6 & B6 ï' B6 €c Y· ª A à 'B 6 à 'B 6 ÈL = 'B6 *? = 'B6 ˜ ó 4 ·ª A ˜ó4 ·ª A ˜ó 4 · ªA ˜ó 4 · ªA 1 2 3 H industrial and manufacturing � attractive¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � �S � � � + � � � innovative technologies and research � � labor pool� � � � � � � � h 9 H q Ł + � � c 9 • “* � � ¨ < less available work forceŁ f 9 • “ * � wage �� � � � � �� h COST — IB E � � � � @ I B E � � � � A • “ * � � A • “ * � � 3 �� � Ì€ y ª ’W IH � �� � � � � � h In this argument corporations are urged to consider the city of Helios when seeking a new location or new business opportunities. To support this recommendation, the author points out that Helios is the industrial center of the region, providing most of the region’s manufacturing jobs and enjoying a lower­than­average unemployment rate. Moreover, it is argued, efforts are currently underway to expand the economic base of the city by attracting companies that focus on research and development of innovative technologies. This argument is problematic for two reasons. To begin with, it is questionable whether the available labor pool in Helios could support all types of corporations. Given that Helios has attracted mainly industrial and manufacturing companies in the past, it is unlikely that the local pool of prospective employees would be suitable for corporations of other types. For example, the needs of research and development companies would not be met by a labor force trained in manufacturing skills. For this reason, it’s unlikely that Helios will be successful in its attempt to attract companies that focus or research and development of innovative technologies. Another problem with the available work force is its size. Due to the lower than average unemployment rate in Helios, corporations that require large numbers of workers would not find Helios attractive. The fact that few persons are out of work suggests that new corporations will have to either attract new workers to Helios or pay the existing workers higher wages in order to lure them away from their current jobs. Neither of these alternatives seems enticing to companies seeking to relocate. In conclusion, the author has not succeeded in providing compelling reasons for selecting Helios as the site for a company wishing to relocate. In fact, the reasons offered function better as reasons for not relocating to Helios. Nor has the author provided compelling reasons for companies seeking new business opportunities to choose Helios. 8. The following appeared in the editorial section of a corporate newsletter. “The common notion that workers are generally apathetic about management issues is false, or at least outdated: a recently published survey indicates that 79 percent of the nearly 1,200 workers who responded to survey questionnaires expressed a high level of interest in the topics of corporate restructuring and redesign of benefits programs.” p p? B 6 ���� è ï 'B 6 ` Ò6 · ° ’ à ' B6 W ='B 6 ˜ó4· ª A ˜ó 4 · A 1200 �ª � � 79� � � � ` Ò6 1. 2. 3. survey is doubtful: Detailed information should be given such as the absolute number of workers of that corporation. insufficient sample: The corporation is not representative of all the other corporations. gratuitous assumption: It is natural that workers are interested in the topics such as corporate structuring and design of benefits programs. This trend can not be cited to support the author’s allege. Based upon a survey among workers that indicates a high level of interest in the topics of corporate restructuring and redesign of benefits programs, the author concludes that workers are not apathetic about management issues. Specifically, it is argued that since 79 percent of the 1200 workers who responded to survey expressed interest in these topics, the notion that workers are apathetic about management issues is incorrect. The reasoning in this argument is problematic in several respects. First, the statistics cited in the editorial may be misleading because the total number of workers employed by the corporation is not specified. For example, if the corporation employs 2000 workers, the fact that 79 percent of the nearly 1200 respondents showed interest in these topics provides strong support for the conclusion. On the other hand, if the corporation employs 200,000 workers, the conclusion is much weaker. Another problem with the argument is that the respondents’ views are not necessarily representative of the views of the work force in general. For example, because the survey has to do with apathy, it makes sense that only less apathetic workers would respond to it, thereby distorting the overall picture of apathy among the work force. Without knowing how the survey was conducted, it is impossible to assess whether or not this is the case. A third problem with the argument is that it makes a hasty generalization about the types of issues workers are interested in. It accords with common sense that workers would be interested in corporate restructuring and redesign of benefits programs, since these issues affect workers very directly. However, it is unfair to assume that workers would be similarly interested in other management issues—ones that do not affect them or affect them less directly. In conclusion, this argument is not convincing as it stands. To strengthen it, the author would have to show that the respondents account for a significant and representative portion of all workers. Additionally, the author must provide evidence of workers’ interest other management topics—not just those that affect workers directly. 9. The following appeared in the opinion column of a financial magazine. “On average, middle-aged consumers devote 39 percent of their retail expenditure to department store products and services, while for younger consumers the average is only 25 percent. Since the number of middle-aged people will increase dramatically within the next decade, department stores can expect retail sales to increase significantly during that period. Furthermore, to take advantage of the trend, these stores should begin to replace some of those products intended to attract the younger consumer with products intended to attract the middleaged consumer.” È ˜qè°’ W 10 � �� ÈÑ H ž 4´ ª A È 39� � 2 * ? B6 ° Ðv¯ ª A . 0 v.·ªA 9° W 25� p è o’ * Z * ÿ. 1. 2. 3. 4. The absolute value of consumption should be given by the author. all things are equal Whether the increase of profit gained by attracting more middle-aged consumers will be offset by the reduction of profit because of the loss of young consumers. Sample essay 1: The argument that department retail sales will increase in the next 10 years and thus department stores should begin to replace products to attract middle­aged consumers is not entirely logically convincing, since it omits certain crucial assumptions First of all, the argument ignores the absolute amount of retail expenditure of middle­aged and younger consumers devoted to department store products and services. Although younger consumers spend a smaller percentage of their retail expenditure to department store products than do the middle­aged consumers, they might actually spend more in terms of the absolute amount. Even if middle­aged consumers are spending more than younger ones in department stores, the argument ignores the possibility that the trend may change within the next decade. Younger consumers might prefer to shop in department stores than in other types of stores, and middle­aged consumers might turn to other types of stores, too. This will lead to a higher expenditure of younger consumers in department stores than that of middle­aged consumers. Besides, the argument never addresses the population difference between middle­aged consumers and younger ones. Suppose there are more younger consumers than the middle­aged ones now, the total population base of younger consumers will be bigger than that of the middle­aged ones if both of them grow at the same rate in the next decade. Thus there will be a bigger younger consumer base. Based on the reasons I listed above, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion does little to prove the conclusion since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been more convincing by making it clear that the absolute population of middle­aged consumers are higher than that of the younger consumers and the number will continue to grow in the next decade, and that the middle­aged consumers will continue to spend more money in department stores than younger consumers do in the next decade. Sample essay 2: The argument that retailers should replace some of the products intended to attract the younger consumers with products intended to attract the middle­ aged consumers is not entirely logically convincing, since it ignores certain crucial assumptions. First, the argument omits the assumption that the business volumes of both the middle­aged consumers and the younger consumers are the same. If the business volume of the middle­aged consumers’ 39% is smaller than that of the younger consumers’ 25%, the retail sales will not increase during the next decade. Second, even if the business volumes of both the middle­aged consumers and the younger consumers were the same in the last decade, the increase of the middle­aged people in the next decade is not the same as the increase of the retail expenditure, for the retail trade depends more on such factors as the economic circumstances, people’s consuming desire. Finally, the argument never assumes the increase of the younger consumers within the next decade. If the younger consumers increase at the same rate and spend the same amount of money on the goods and services of department stores, the retailers should never ignore them. Thus the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the growing number of middle­aged people within the next decade does little to prove the conclusion—that department stores should begin to replace some of their products to attract the middle­aged consumers since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by making it clear that the business volumes of both types of consumers are the same and comparable, that the increase of a certain type of consumers are correlated with the increase of the retail sales, and that the growth rate of the younger consumers are the same as that of the middle­aged consumers. Sample essay 3: Based on an expected increase in the number of middle­aged people during the next decade, the author predicts that retail sales at department stores will increase significantly over the next ten years. To bolster this prediction, the author cites statistics showing that middle­aged people devote a much higher percentage of their retail expenditure to department­store services and products than younger consumers do. Since the number of middle­aged consumers is on the rise and since they spend more than younger people on department­store goods and services, the author further recommends that department stores begin to adjust their inventories to capitalize on this trend. Specifically, it is recommended that department stores increase their inventory of products aimed at middle­aged consumers and decrease their inventory of products aimed at younger consumers. This argument is problematic for two reasons. First, an increase in the number of middle­aged people does not necessarily portend an overall increase in department­store sales. It does so only on the assumption that other population groups will remain relatively constant. For example, if the expected increase in the number of middle­aged people is offset by an equally significant decrease in the number of younger people, there will be little or no net gain in sales. Second, in recommending that department stores replace products intended to attract younger consumers with products more suitable to middle­aged consumers, the author assumes that the number of younger consumers will not also increase. Since a sizable increase in the population of younger consumers could conceivably offset the difference in the retail expenditure patterns of younger and middle­aged consumers, it would be unwise to make the recommended inventory adjustment lacking evidence to support this assumption. In conclusion, this argument is unacceptable. To strengthen the argument the author would have to provide evidence that the population of younger consumers will remain relatively constant over the next decade. 10. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. “This past winter, 200 students from Waymarsh State College traveled to the state capitol building to protest against proposed cuts in funding for various state college programs. The other 12,000 Waymarsh students evidently weren’t so concerned about their education: they either stayed on campus or left for winter break. Since the group who did not protest is far more numerous, it is more representative of the state’s college students than are the protesters. Therefore the state legislature need not heed the appeals of the protesting students.” ` xœ 4 ´ ª A �� � �� � � � 200 � � °Ð v ¯ªA Waymarsh � � �� � � � 0v .· ª A 9o * Z B *, * ÿ. * ? B 12000 6 V ÐZ “·ªA j B Waymarsh b ¹ O· ª A Àv 1. 2. 3. 1 ; = p 5 =“ = n U gU � 2 ƒ Î *- ’ E ï 8=“ U5 = “ p5 à8 C ÿ =“ — =“ ƒ *- ’ E ð 8=“ w þJ · ª V p 5=“ ` wþ J · ª V U5 = “ a ’U absent the class, leave the school earlier, � � One obvious rejoinder to this line of reasoning is that p è ° ’ W protest x ¼ … ´ ª 2 200 ^ ’W yÜ &B 6 elected to represent the entire students2 * The conclusion in this argument is that the state legislature need not consider the views of protesting students. To support this conclusion, the author points out that only 200 of the 12,000 students traveled to the state capitol to voice their concerns about proposed cuts in college programs. Since the remaining students did not take part in this protest, the author concludes they are not interested in this issue. The reasoning in this argument is flawed for two reasons. First, the author assumes that because only one­tenth of the students took part in the protest, these students’ views are unrepresentative of the entire student body. This assumption is unwarranted. If it turns out, for example, that the protesting students were randomly selected from the entire student body, their views would reflect the views of the entire college. Without information regarding the way in which the protesting students were selected, it is presumptuous to conclude that their opinions fail to reflect the opinions of their colleagues. Second, the author cites the fact that the remaining 12,000 students stayed on campus or left for winter break as evidence that they are not concerned about their education. One obvious rejoinder to this line of reasoning is that the students who did not participate did so with the knowledge that their concerns would be expressed by the protesting students. In any case, the author has failed to demonstrate a logical connection between the students’ alleged lack of concern and the fact that they either stayed on campus or left for winter break. Without this connection, the conclusion reached by the author that the remaining 12,000 students are not concerned about their education is unacceptable. As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically acceptable, the author would have to demonstrate that the protesting students had some characteristic in common that biases their views, thereby nullifying their protest as representative of the entire college. 11. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. “In the first four years that Montoya has served as mayor of the city of San Perdito, the population has decreased and the unemployment rate has increased. Two businesses have closed for each new business that has opened. Under Varro, who served as mayor for four years before Montoya, the unemployment rate decreased and the population increased. Clearly, the residents of San Perdito would be best served if they voted Montoya out of office and reelected Varro.” y 2 Montoya �� � 4 qŁ San Perdito � � � +�� ‘ 9 ·ªA 4 � � � �� � � 7 @ * ,* * ?B 6 Montoya �� � � � � � � 7 Montoya � È San Perdito x … ? ∙ “ * � Varro � Ü Uarro 1. 2. It is fallacious reasoning unless other possible casual explanations have been considered and ruled out. recession depression downturn x ¼ M ´ is part of a picture of ... mayor set the stage for Yet another possibility is that Varro enjoyed a period of economic stability and Varro's own administration set the stage for the unemployment and the 3. 4. decline in population . availability emotionally intentionally specific specifically anger angry citizen thereby bypass cast one's vote for sb. eliminate abolish casual emotional appeal 12 2 standard ratio of the closed business to new business in the whole country, E • “ * � � �� ����� � E• eliminate through selection or contest out of date � � � � � � � � E competitive advantages � À 22 ˜ q è° ’ W = ˆ 6· ª A ÈL 9 o* * � * K B E � � � � 5 �� �, @ P � p è° ’ W recession depression downturn 2 The recommendation endorsed in this argument is that residents of San Perdito vote current mayor Montoya out of office, and re­elect former mayor Varro. The reasons cited are that during Montoya’s four years in office the population has decreased while unemployment has increased, whereas during Varro’s term unemployment declined while the population grew. This argument involves the sort of gross oversimplification and emotional appeal typical of political rhetoric; for this reason it is unconvincing. First of all, the author assumes that the Montoya administration caused the unemployment in San Perdito as well as its population loss. The line of reasoning is that because Montoya was elected before the rise in unemployment and the decline in population, the former event caused the latter. But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. For example, perhaps a statewide or nationwide recession is the cause of these events. Or perhaps the current economic downturn is part of a larger picture of economic cycles and trends, and has nothing to do with who happens to be mayor. Yet another possibility is that Varro enjoyed a period of economic stability and Varro’s own administration set the stage for the unemployment and the decline in population the city is now experiencing under Montoya. Secondly, job availability and the economic health of one’s community are issues that affect people emotionally. The argument at hand might have been intentionally oversimplified for the specific purpose of angering citizens of San Perdito, and thereby turning them against the incumbent mayor. Arguments that bypass relevant, complex reasoning in favor of stirring up emotions do nothing to establish their conclusions; they are also unfair to the parties involved. In conclusion, I would not cast my vote for Varro on the basis of this weak argument. The author must provide support for the assumption that Mayor Montoya has caused San Perdito’s poor economy. Moreover, such support would have to involve examining and eliminating other possible causal factors. Only with more convincing evidence could this argument become more than just an emotional appeal. 12. The following appeared as part of a promotional campaign to sell advertising space in the Daily Gazette to grocery stores in the Marston area. “Advertising the reduced price of selected grocery items in the Daily Gazette will help you increase your sales. Consider the results of a study conducted last month. Thirty sale items from a store in downtown Marston were advertised in the Gazette for four days. Each time one or more of the 30 items was purchased, clerks asked whether the shopper had read the ad. Twothirds of the 200 shoppers asked answered in the affirmative. Furthermore, more than half the customers who answered in the affirmative spent over $100 at the store.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. o Gazette Gazette �� � � � � � ¨< ¶“ * � á “ Sª ’ ” E @ K BE “ ’ 200”� � � • “ * � Marston 2/3 � � � � � � � p 7i@ Ł + @ /@ � Gazette � @K B E 4 E •“ ² 100 � � 7 i Marston �� � � � � � @ À 30 E • “ —IBE� � � —IBE� � � @ I BE @ I BE c þ A·ª c þ A·ª - cþ A · ª cþ A · ª 4 4 Ì€ y ª’W Ì€ y ª’W s s 1 2 32 � pŁ + � � � � � � � sale ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ “ + � � R � � � + � 100 � p Ł % +� � � � � � � � � p K B E� � � � �I B E � � � � I B E � � � P I B E � � � � A• “ * � � A• “ * � � � � � � � � sale R � � � + � � � �J B E � � � � � � � � � � � @ B E thanks giving� � � � � � � � K q Ł + � � 0 l 9 • “ * � � ¨ The conclusion of this argument is that advertising the reduced price of selected items in the Daily Gazette will result in increased sales overall. To support it, the author cites an informal poll conducted by sales clerks when customers purchased advertised items. Each time one or more of the advertised items was sold, the clerks asked whether the customer had read the ad. It turned out that two­thirds of 200 shoppers questioned said that they had read the ad. In addition, of those who reported reading the ad, more than half spent over $100 in the store. This argument is unconvincing for two reasons. To begin with, the author’s line of reasoning is that the advertisement was the cause of the purchase of the sale items. However, while the poll establishes a correlation between reading the ad and purchasing sale items, and also indicates a correlation, though less significantly, between reading the ad and buying non­sale items, it does not establish a general causal relationship between these events. To establish this relationship, other factors that could bring about this result must be considered and eliminated. For example, if the four days during which the poll was conducted preceded Thanksgiving and the advertised items were traditionally associated with this holiday, then the results of the poll would be extremely biased and unreliable. Moreover, the author assumes that the poll indicates that advertising certain sale will cause a general increase in sales. But the poll does not even address the issue of increased overall sales; it informs us mainly that, of the people who purchased sales items, more had read the ad than not. A much clearer indicator of the ad’s effectiveness would be a comparison of overall sales on days the ad ran with overall sales on otherwise similar days when the ad did not run. In sum, this argument is defective mainly because the poll does not support the conclusion that sales in general will increase when reduced­price products are advertised in the Daily Gazette. To strengthen the argument, the author must, at the very least, provide comparisons of overall sales reports as described above. 13. The following appeared as part of a campaign to sell advertising time on a local radio station to local businesses. “The Cumquat Cafe began advertising on our local radio station this year and was delighted to see its business increase by 10 percent over last year’s totals. Their success shows you how you can use radio advertising to make your business more profitable.” È L <∙ “ * � , ¶ ª A 9 o* á *,* F k ª ’ W ¶ &B6 * Cumquat � �� � � � * ? B 6 0F ��� + � C 1 12 2 32 s <∙“* For example, the Cumquat might have changed owners or chefs; it might have launched a coupon ad campaign in the local print media; or it might have changed or updated the menu. � €¯ O· sL•´ª We must also assume that what is true of the Cumquat will likewise be true of most other businesses. In an attempt to sell radio advertising time, this ad claims that radio advertising will make businesses more profitable. The evidence cited is a ten percent increase in business that the Cumquat Cafe has experienced in the year during which it advertised on the local radio station. This argument is unconvincing because two questionable assumptions must be made for the stated evidence to support the author’s conclusion. The first assumption is that radio advertising alone has caused the increase in business at the Cumquat Cafe. This assumption is questionable because it overlooks a number of other factors that might have contributed to the Cumquat’s success. For example, the Cumquat might have changed owners or chefs; it might have launched a coupon ad campaign in the local print media; or it might have changed or updated the menu. Yet another possibility is that a local competitor went out of business. These are just a few of the factors that could help explain the Cumquat’s growth. Because the author fails to eliminate these possibilities, the assumption in question need not be accepted. Even if it is granted that radio advertising is responsible for the Cumquat’s success, another assumption must be made before we can conclude that radio advertising will result in increased profits for businesses in general. We must also assume that what is true of the Cumquat will likewise be true of most other businesses. But there are all kinds of important differences between cafes and other businesses that could affect how radio audiences react to their advertising. We cannot safely assume that because a small restaurant has benefited from radio advertising, any and all local businesses will similarly benefit. In conclusion, it would be imprudent for a business to invest in radio advertising solely on the basis of the evidence presented. To strengthen the conclusion, it must be established that radio advertising was the principal cause of increased business at the Cumquat. Once this is shown, it must be determined that the business in question is sufficiently like the Cumquat, and so can expect similar returns from investment in radio ad time. 14. The following appeared as part of a newspaper editorial. “Two years ago Nova High School began to use interactive computer instruction in three academic subjects. The school dropout rate declined immediately, and last year’s graduates have reported some impressive achievements in college. In future budgets the school board should use a greater portion of the available funds to buy more computers, and all schools in the district should adopt interactive computer instruction throughout the curriculum.” 2 ��� Nova x E • ª 3 A• ªA 2 y þ 4· ª A ; ° Ð v ¯ª A Ì € y ª’ W 0v . ·ªA I Z … 2 ÿ. interactive interact instruction logical logically covincing ignore decline atttibute dropout x ‰ 6 · ª A usage sufficient fund budget compromise comprise impressive portion proportional ultimately ultimate strengthen graduate graduation applicable apply applicant application affordable afford district 1 � p è ° ’W policy � � � � � � * ?B 6 . 9o* stricter discipline applied last year. ¨< ¶“* —B6 ' 2 � pè°’ W 3 Sample essay 1: The argument that the school board should buy more computers and adopt interactive computer instruction is not entirely logically convincing, since it ignores certain crucial assumptions. First, the argument assumes that the decline of school dropout and the achievements of last year’s graduates’ results from the adoption of interactive computer instruction. However, there are several reasons why this might not be true. For example, achievements could have been made in other subjects than the ones with interactive computer instruction. Or last years’ graduates might not have been given the interactive computer instruction. Or the decline of the rate of dropout could be attributed to stricter discipline applied last year. Second, even supposing the Nova High School’s decline of the dropout and last year’s graduates’ achievements benefit directly from the usage of interactive computer instruction, the success of the instruction in one school may not ensure the success in other schools. If it does not suit other schools, Æ% “+ R *'B 6 counseling and training programs y þ4 ·ª A yþ 4·ª A q $ interest ¨ < ¶ “ * � � á F k ª ’ W Ì€ yª’W ’W I the instruction will not work. Finally, even if the decline of the rate of dropout and the achievements of the last year’s graduates’ are the direct results of the interactive computer instruction, we still do not know whether the school can afford to apply the instruction on all the subjects or to all the students. If the school does not have sufficient fund and has to cut budgets on other projects such as the library, the quality of the school’s education will also compromise. Thus, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the dropout rate declined and last year’s graduates made impressive achievements does little to prove the conclusion that other schools should use a greater portion of their funds to apply the instruction since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by making it clear that the decline of the dropout rate and the achievements of the graduates are the direct results of interactive computer instruction, that the instruction is also applicable to other schools in the district, and that the instruction is affordable to all the schools in the district. Sample essay 2: The editorial recommends that the school board of Nova High spend a greater portion of available funds on the purchase of additional computers and adopt interactive computer instruction throughout the curriculum. Two reasons are offered in support of this recommendation. First, the introduction of interactive computer instruction in three academic subjects was immediately followed by a decline in the school dropout rate. Second, last year’s graduates experienced impressive achievements in college. This argument is unconvincing for two reasons. To begin with, this argument isa classic instance of “after this, therefore because of this” reasoning. The mere fact that the introduction of interactive computer instruction preceded the impressive performance of recent graduates and the decline in the dropout rate is insufficient to conclude that it was the cause of these events. Many other factors could bring about these same results. For example, the school may have implemented counseling and training programs that better meet the needs of students who might otherwise leave school to take jobs. In addition, the school may have introduced programs to better prepare students for college. Secondly, the author assumes that the impressive achievements of last year’s graduates bear some relation to the introduction of interactive computer instruction at Nova High. However, no evidence is offered to support this assumption. Lacking evidence that links the achievements of the recent graduates to the interactive instruction, it is presumptuous to suggest that the computer instruction was in some way responsible for the students’ impressive performance. In conclusion, the recommendation that Nova High spend a greater portion of available funds on the purchase of additional computers and adopt interactive computer instruction throughout the curriculum is ill­founded. To strengthen this recommendation the author would have to demonstrate that the decline in the dropout rate and the impressive performance of recent graduates came about as a result of the use of computer­interactive instruction. All that has been shown so far is a correlation between these events. 15. The following appeared as a part of an advertisement for Adams, who is seeking reelection as governor. “Re-elect Adams, and you will be voting for proven leadership in improving the state’s economy. Over the past year alone, seventy percent of the state’s workers have had increases in their wages, five thousand new jobs have been created, and six corporations have located their headquarters here. Most of the respondents in a recent poll said they believed that the economy is likely to continue to improve if Adams is reelected. Adams’s opponent, Zebulon, would lead our state in the wrong direction, because Zebulon disagrees with many of Adams’s economic policies.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. p è ° ’+ ��� 8 B•“ * Adams@ @ �� 6����� Adams 8 B •“ * K s Zebulon � � ƒÎ Q -’ + 7g @ Adams 8 B •“ * � 5=“ p Adams � � � �� 70� � � �� ˜Ë< ˜Ë< 5000 � Adams � � � @ K BE @ K BE Zebulon � p Ł + � 1. Z 2. 3. n vague p è°’ p ’ è° E E pè°’ E ƒ Î *- ’ E 5000 È ( g ¶ ª V á / hª ’ E p 5 =“ ÿ 8 =“ ð 8=“ ADAMS n ZEBULON È ( g ¶ ª V á / hª ’ E ] ` ’E ’E This political advertisement recommends re­electing Governor Adams because he has a proven leadership role in improving the state’s economy. In support of this reason the author cites these statistics: in the past year, most state workers’ wages have gone up; 5,000 new jobs have been created; and six corporations have located in the state. Another reason offered for re­electing Adams is a recent poll, which indicates that most respondents believe the state economy would continue to improve if he were re­elected. Finally, the author claims that rival Zebulon would harm the state’s economy because he disagrees with Adams’ fiscal policies. This argument is fraught with vague, oversimplified and unwarranted claims. To begin with, the statistics are intended to support the main claim that the state is economically better off with Adams as governor. But these statistics are vague and oversimplified, and thus may distort the state’s overall economic picture. For example, state workers’ pay raises may have been minuscule and may not have kept up with cost of living or with pay for state workers in other states. Moreover, the 5,000 new jobs may have been too few to bring state unemployment rates down significantly; at the same time, many jobs may have been lost. Finally, the poll indicates that six new corporations located in the state, but fails to indicate if any left. Next, the poll cited by the author is described in the vaguest possible terms. The ad does not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or how the poll was conducted. Until these questions are answered, the survey results are worthless as evidence for public opinion about Adams or his economic policies. Finally, while we have only vague and possibly distorted evidence that the state is better off with Adams, we have absolutely no evidence that it would be worse off with Zebulon. Given that the state economy is good at the moment, none of the author’s reasons establishes that Adams is the cause of this. And neither do they establish that the state wouldn’t be even better off with someone else in office. In conclusion, this argument is weak. To strengthen the argument, the author must provide additional information about the adequacy of state workers’ pay raises, the effect of the 5,000 jobs on the state’s employment picture, the overall growth of corporations in the state, and other features of the state economy. Also, the author must support the claims that Adams’ actions have caused any economic improvement and that in the future Adams will impart more economic benefit than would Zebulon. 16. The following appeared as part of an article in the education section of a Waymarsh City newspaper. “Throughout the last two decades, those who earned graduate degrees found it very difficult to get jobs teaching their academic specialties at the college level. Those with graduate degrees from Waymarsh University had an especially hard time finding such jobs. But better times are coming in the next decade for all academic job seekers, including those from Waymarsh. Demographic trends indicate that an increasing number of people will be reaching college age over the next ten years; consequently, we can expect that the job market will improve dramatically for people seeking college-level teaching positions in their fields.” Waymarsh �� 8E •“ * � � p Ł … Waymarsh � � �� � � � Ä ƒ Îé-’ W + � � ƒ Îé-’ W 9o * p?B 6 p?B 6 Waymarsh q Ł + � � * ,* p‹ 6 ·ª A È ™ *?B6 10 20 @ @ �� � � � * ? B 6 10 � p Ł + � � @ @ �� � � � * ? B 6 1. ˜ q Ł + � � 2. È ( ¶“ * � � 3. � �� � � � p‹ 6 ·ª A È L, áF k ª’ W ^ H ,waymarsh ’W c O' · . 1 22 32 ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ “ + � � R� � � + � % even if we grant the preceding assumption *? B 6 . pè°’ W 2 GRADUATED DEGREE E ∙“* � W� benefit from this trend� � � � � � � � p ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ % “ + � � R � � � + � foretold regarding the employability 9o* Demographic trends that indicate an increase in the number of college­aged people over the next ten years lead the author to predict an improved job market for all people seeking college­level teaching positions in their academic disciplines. Moreover, the author argues that since Waymarsh University students with advanced degrees had an especially difficult time finding teaching jobs in the past, these trends portend better times ahead for Waymarsh graduates. This argument is problematic in three important respects. First, theauthor assumes that an increase in the number of college­aged people over the next decade will necessarily result in an increase in the number of people who attend college during this period. While this is a reasonable assumption, it is by no means a certainty. For example, a world war or economic depression in the next decade would certainly nullify this expectation. Second, even if we grant the preceding assumption, we must also consider the additional assumption that increased university enrollments will lead to an increase in teaching positions in all fields. However, it might turn out that some teaching specialties are in greater demand than others in the future, resulting in a disproportionate number of teaching positions available in various fields. Consequently, persons trained in some fields might find it more difficult, if not impossible, to find teaching jobs in the future. Finally, little can be foretold regarding the employability of Waymarsh graduates in the future based on the information provided in the argument. Lacking information about the reasons why Waymarsh graduates had an especially difficult time finding teaching jobs, it is difficult to assess their prospects for the future. It is probable, however, that since Waymarsh has had an especially hard time placing graduates in the past, the mere fact that more jobs are available will not, by itself, ensure that Waymarsh graduates will have an easier time finding teaching jobs during the next decade. In conclusion, this argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument, the author must provide evidence that the only major trend in the next decade will be an increase in the number of people reaching college age. Regarding the future prospects for Waymarsh graduates, the author must provide evidence that there were no idiosyncratic reasons that prevented them from finding jobs in the past. 20. The following appeared in an article in a health and fitness magazine. “Laboratory studies show that Saluda Natural Spring Water contains several of the minerals necessary for good health and that it is completely free of bacteria. Residents of Saluda, the small town where the water is bottled, are hospitalized less frequently than the national average. Even though Saluda Natural Spring Water may seem expensive, drinking it instead of tap water is a wise investment in good health.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. p è ° ’+ ˜r E ´ ª * Saluda � � � � � � @ K BE s @ K BE s 7g @ 7 g @ Saluda q Ł + ` Š E· ª* È saluda � � � � � � 1. V � � � � 2. a � � � � n � �. 3. pŁ + n ,˜ q Ł + ƒ Î Q- ’+ 7g@ p KBE @ S@ , • r E´ ª* � ��� È ( S. ÿI B E @K B E p 9· .È ( ð 8=“ .k pŁ ¶“* + á % .ª ’+ `8= _ ’ Sample essay 1: The argument that drinking Saluda Natural Spring Water instead of tap water is a wise investment in good health is not entirely logically convincing, since it lacks certain supporting factors. Firstly, the argument assumes that Saluda Natural Spring Water is the major reason why residents of Saluda are less frequently hospitalized than the national average. However, there is little evidence that this water is the only difference between this place and the rest of the country. And the reason why people in other places are more hospitalized are numerous and varied. There are so many other factors that would bring people in other places to hospitals, such as accidents, food contamination, illnesses, etc. Secondly, the argument also assumes that the minerals in Saluda National Spring Water are the key minerals for the good health of the residents of Saluda. However, this may not be true. We need not only minerals to keep good heath but also various vitamins. Besides, our body needs more minerals than those contained in Saluda Natural Spring Water. Finally, even if the Saluda water is the major reason why the residents of Saluda are less hospitalized, the argument still omits the fact that there is more than one way to keep drinking water free from bacteria. For instance, the most common practice is to boil water up to 100 degree Celsius and keep it at that degree for more than 5 minutes. Therefore drinking Saluda water to keep good health is not the only alternative. Thus, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the Saluda residents are less hospitalized does little to prove the conclusion that drinking Saluda Natural Spring Water is a wise investment in good health since it omits the assumptions I have just raised. The argument might have been strengthened by making it plain that Saluda Natural Spring Water is the major reason why the residents of Saluda are less hospitalized, that the water contains all the major minerals essential for the human body, and that there is no other way to keep water from bacteria. Sample essay 2: In this argument the author concludes that drinking Saluda Natural Spring Water (SNSW) is preferable to drinking tap water. Three reasons are offered in support of this conclusion: SNSW contains several of the minerals necessary for good health, it is completely tree of bacteria, and residents of Saluda —the town where it is bottled—are hospitalized less frequently than the national average. This argument is unconvincing because it relies on a variety of dubious assumptions. The first questionable assumption underlying this argument that tap water does not contain the minerals in question and is not completely free of bacteria. This assumption is not supported in the argument. If tap water is found to contain the same minerals and to be free of bacteria, the author’s conclusion is substantially undermined. A second assumption of the argument is that the water residents of Saluda drink is the same as SNSW. Lacking evidence to the contrary, it is possible that Saluda is not the source of the bottled water but is merely the place where SNSW is bottled. No evidence is offered in the argument to dispute this possibility. Finally, it is assumed without argument that the reason residents are hospitalized less frequently than the national average is that they drink SNSW. Again, no evidence is offered to support this assumption. Perhaps the residents are hospitalized less frequently because they are younger than the national average, because they are all vegetarians, or because they exercise daily. That is, there might be other reasons than the one cited to account for this disparity. In conclusion, this is an unconvincing argument. To strengthen the conclusion that SNSW is more healthful than tap water, the author must provide evidence that tap water contains harmful bacteria not found in SNSW. Moreover, the author must demonstrate that the residents of Saluda regularly drink the same water as SNSW and that this is why they are hospitalized less frequently than the national average. 28. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. “Commuter use of the new subway train is exceeding the transit company’s projections. However, commuter use of the shuttle buses that transport people to the subway stations is below the projected volume. If the transit company expects commuters to ride the shuttle buses to the subway rather than drive there, it must either reduce the shuttle bus fares or increase the price of parking at the subway stations.” ° Ðv¯ ªA *, * * ?B6 0 v. · ª A q Z ƒ Î é -’ W B . p ?B 6 V Ð Zÿ“· ª A ð LÈ ¶ ª A Àv 1. .˜ q s c ° ’ W è o áö ªA È L , ¶ ,È ( , ¶ ª A á Fkª ’W $ ’W È ( , ¶ªA á Fkª ’W X ’ .To begin with, by concluding that the transit company W must either reduce shuttle fares or increase parking fees, the author assumes that these are the only available solutions to the problem of limited shuttle use. . n t :ø ‹ “ · ª V & È (g ¶ ª V á / hª’ E R ’. 2. S ’E 6 =“ .È ( g ¶ ª U 5 = “ / h ª ’ E V á S ’ E :n U 5 =“ a . ’1U inconvenient shuttle routing and/or scheduling adjust adopt mutually exclusive combination The author assumes that reducing shuttle fees and increasing parking fees are mutually exclusive alternatives. impose However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either/or choice. q è °’E 1 áö ª V È( 1 2 ł ‹ “ · ª V false dilemma The author concludes that the local transit company must either reduce fares for the shuttle buses that transport people to their subway stations or increase parking fees at the stations. The reasons offered to support this conclusion are that commuter use of the subway train is exceeding the transit company’s expectations, while commuter use of the shuffle buses is below projected volume. This argument is unconvincing because the author oversimplifies the problem and its solutions in a number of ways. To begin with, by concluding that the transit company must either reduce shuttle fares or increase parking fees, the author assumes that these are the only available solutions to the problem of limited shuttle use. However, it is possible that other factors—such as inconvenient shuttle routing and/or scheduling, safety concerns, or an increase in carpools—contribute to the problem. If so, adjusting fares or parking fees would might not solve the problem. In addition, the author assumes that reducing shuttle fees and increasing parking fees are mutually exclusive alternatives. However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either/or choice. Adjusting both shuttle fares and parking fees might produce better results. Moreover, if the author is wrong in the assumption that parking fees and shuttle fees are the only possible causes of the problem, then the most effective solution might include a complex of policy changes—for example, in shuttle fares, parking fees, rerouting, and rescheduling. In conclusion, this argument is weak because the author oversimplifies both the problem and its possible solutions. To strengthen the argument the author must examine all factors that might account for the shuttle’s unpopularity. Additionally, the author should consider all possible solutions to determine which combination would bring about the greatest increase in shuttle use. 31. The following appeared as part of the business plan of an investment and financial consulting firm. “Studies suggest that an average coffee drinker’s consumption of coffee increases with age, from age 10 through age 60. Even after age 60, coffee consumption remains high. The average cola drinker’s consumption of cola, however, declines with increasing age. Both of these trends have remained stable for the past 40 years. Given that the number of older adults will significantly increase as the population ages over the next 20 years, it follows that the demand for coffee will increase and the demand for cola will decrease during this period. We should, therefore, consider transferring our investments from Cola Loca to Early Bird Coffee.” , � � � � � � � � p { 40 q Ł qŁ ,+� � ÈL B• “ * � � È L 10 K 60 � � � � � � � � p { 60 � � � � � � � � @ B E � � � � . B • “ * � � È L 20 � � � *� � � 7 @ � � � � *, � � * B6 9 * – +� � 1.all the things are equal " ƒ Î * -’ E p 5=“ “ ÿ 8 = ð 8 =“ ` 8=“ . p è° ’ E .È ( g ¶ ª V á / h ª’ E S ’ E .˜ q è ° ’ E m d = ·ª V È( p è° ’ E . p è° ’ E . 2.Ð 8 = “ U8 =“ w þJ·ª V · ª wþ J H V Ì € wª ’ E .D Œ “ · ª D Œ “ · ª V ,D Œ “ · ª gratuitous n 3.È ( g ¶ ª V á/ h ª’ E S ’ E Finally, the firm unjustifiably relies on the studies that correlate coffee and cola consumption with age. The firm does not provide evidence to confirm the reliability of the studies.Moreover, while the phrase "studies suggest" may appear to lend credibility to these claims, the phrase is vague enough to actually render the claims worthless, in the absence of any information about them. the author can not justify his recommendation ill-founded D Œ “ · ª V ï8= “ 1 p5= “ 2 � � � ��� �@ K BE �� 32 � � ��� �p { à8 = “ a — 8= “ ’ 1U w þ J V coffee drinker ª· wþ J ·ª In this argument a consulting firm recommends the transfer of investments from Cola Loca to Early Bird Coffee because, during the next 20 years, coffee demand will increase while cola demand will decrease. This prediction is based on the expectation that the number of older adults will significantly increase over the next 20 years, together with statistics, reportedly stable for the past 40 years, indicating that coffee consumption increases with age while cola consumption declines with increasing age. For three reasons, this financial advice may not be sound. First, the argument assumes that relative supply conditions will remain unchanged over the next twenty years. However, the supply and cost of cola and coffee beans, as well as other costs of doing business as a producer of coffee or cola, may fluctuate greatly over a long time period. These factors may affect comparative prices of coffee and cola, which in turn may affect comparative demand and the value of investments in coffee and cola companies. Without considering other factors that contribute to the value of a coffee or cola company, the firm cannot justify its recommendation. Secondly, the argument fails to account for the timing of the increase in coffee consumption. Perhaps the population will age dramatically during the next five years, then remain relatively flat over the following 15 years. Or perhaps most of the increase in average age will occur toward the end of the 20­ year period. An investor has more opportunity to profit over the short and long term in the first scenario than in the second, assuming the investor can switch investments along the way. If the second scenario reflects the facts, the firm’s recommendation would be ill­founded. Finally, the firm unjustifiably relies on the studies that correlate coffee and cola consumption with age. The firm does not provide evidence to confirm the reliability of the studies. Moreover, while the phrase “studies suggest” may appear to lend credibility to these claims, the phrase is vague enough to actually render the claims worthless, in the absence of any information about them. In conclusion, the firm should not transfer investments from Cola Loca to Early Bird Coffee on the basis of this argument. To better evaluate the recommendation, we would need more information about thestudy upon which it relies. We would also need more detailed projections of population trends during the next 20 years. 32. The following appeared in the editorial section of a West Cambria newspaper. “A recent review of the West Cambria volunteer ambulance service revealed a longer average response time to accidents than was reported by a commercial ambulance squad located in East Cambria. In order to provide better patient care for accident victims and to raise revenue for our town by collecting service fees for ambulance use, we should disband our volunteer service and hire a commercial ambulance service.” 2 ‚ E• “ Cambria F� �� + � ï 'B6 pK BE � � � Cambria &B6 à ' B6 ='B6 � � � � y þ4· ªA � � y þ4·ªA � á Fkª ’ W V ’W *?B6 Cambria ¨< ¶ “ * � �� � � � * ?B6 . 9 o .* �� + � R &B6 �� � � � E gratuitous n . 2. È ( g ¶ ª V á / kª ’ W Z , ’ p è° ’E . Y· .¸ Ö Š “ · ª V ; ¸ Š “· ª ,n . 3. a * ’1 *,* *?B6 , ˜ q è ° 3E ’ Œ 6· ª A È L ,¶ n. p è ° ’E . considerable revenue significant significance consequently consequence ... is insufficient evidence for the claim that this will be the case for ... ambulance-crew proficiency training emergency 1. 12 . ’1 U Ug U � 2 R � �� + � � � JBE� � � �� A• “ * � � A•“ * � �7 Utraffic condition� p Ł 5= “ m U 5= Ì €w ª ’ E + � � � �� � � � � � n * y —— a 32 � � � � � � � ( charge considerable fees � revenue accident rate � p Ł +�� � � �� � In this argument the author concludes that West Cambria can increase revenues and provide better care to accident victims by disbanding the volunteer ambulance service and hiring a commercial one. The author reasons that this change would yield additional revenues because service fees could be imposed for ambulance use. The author also reasons that the city would provide better service to accident victims because a commercial service would respond more quickly to accidents than a volunteer service would. The author’s argument is flawed in two respects. To begin with, the author’s plan for raising revenue for West Cambria is questionable. Unless the service fees are considerable or the accident rate is extremely high, it is unlikely that significant revenues will be raised by charging a fee for ambulance use. Consequently, revenue generation is not a good reason to disband the volunteer service and hire a commercial service. Next, the author’s belief that better patient care would be provided by a commercial ambulance service than by a volunteer service is based on insufficient evidence. The fact that the commercial service in East Cambria has a lower average response time than the volunteer service in West Cambria is insufficient evidence for the claim that this will be the case for all commercial services. Moreover, the author’s recommendation depends upon the assumption that response time to an accident is the only factor that influences patient care. Other pertinent factors—such as ambulance­crew proficiency and training, and emergency equipment—are not considered. In conclusion, this argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to show that substantial revenue for the town could be raised by charging service fees for ambulance use. Additionally, the author would have to provide more evidence to support the claim that commercial ambulance services provide better patient care than volunteer services. 34. The following appeared as part of a plan proposed by an executive of the Easy Credit Company to the president. “The Easy Credit Company would gain an advantage over competing credit card services if we were to donate a portion of the proceeds from the use of our cards to a well-known environmental organization in exchange for the use of its symbol or logo on our card. Since a recent poll shows that a large percentage of the public is concerned about environmental issues, this policy would attract new customers, increase use among existing customers, and enable us to charge interest rates that are higher than the lowest ones available.” Easy —I B E �� � � ‚`¶ ªA ¨ < ¶ ª *' B 6 °Ð v ¯ª A A yþ 4 ·ªA 0v . · ªA á F Z k ª ’ q B ÿ. W ‰ Ì € Easy � � � � yª’W V I Ð Z “ · ªA ’ W —M * · ð Lȶª A Àv y þ 4·ª A 1 ��� *? B 6 . 9o* 2 E� � � ƒÎ é -’ W p?B 6 ÿ ' B6 ð' B6 `'B The author assumes that the public's concern about environmental issues will result in its taking steps to do something about the problem-in this case, to use the Easy Credit Company credit card. 3 È ( g¶ ª V á/ h ª’ E R ’E . 1 2 3 ’1 U ’1 U U gU U gU U 5 =“ issues � � � :� � � DC U U 5 =“ More often�p Ł + � � � � O �� ��� ‚` ¶ “ * donate money to the environmental organization. � � � � � � � �@ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ �� In this argument the author concludes that the Easy Credit Company would gain several advantages over its competitors by donating a portion of its profits to a well­known environmental organization in exchange for the use of the organization’s logo on their credit card. The author reaches this conclusion on the basis of a recent poll that shows widespread public concern about environmental issues. Among the advantages of this policy, the author foresees an increase in credit card use by existing customers, the ability to charge higher interest rates, and the ability to attract new customers. While the author’s argument has some merit, it suffers from two critical problems. To begin with, the author assumes that the environmental organization whose logo is sought is concerned with the same environmental issues about which the poll shows widespread concern. However, the author provides no evidence that this is the case. It is possible that very few credit­card users are concerned about the issues that are the organization’s areas of concern; if so, then it is unlikely that the organization’s logo would attract much business for the Easy Credit Company. Next, the author assumes that the public’s concern about environmental issues will result in its taking steps to do something about the problem— in this case, to use the Easy Credit Company credit card. This assumption is unsupported and runs contrary to experience. Also, it is more reasonable to assume that people who are concerned about a particular cause will choose a more direct means of expressing their concern. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing as it stands. To strengthen the argument, the author must show a positive link between the environmental issues about which the public has expressed concern and the issues with which this particular environmental organization is concerned. In addition, the author must provide evidence to support the assumption that concern about a problem will cause people to do something about the problem. 35. The following appeared as part of a recommendation from the financial planning office to the administration of Fern Valley University. “In the past few years, Fern Valley University has suffered from a decline in both enrollments and admissions applications. The reason can be discovered from our students, who most often cite poor teaching and inadequate library resources as their chief sources of dissatisfaction with Fern Valley. Therefore, in order to increase the number of students attending our university, and hence to regain our position as the most prestigious university in the greater Fern Valley metropolitan area, it is necessary to initiate a fund-raising campaign among the alumni that will enable us to expand the range of subjects we teach and to increase the size of our library facilities.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. ¸Ó G ´ ª * ‚ G∙ “ * � ˛ � �� � � � � ˛ Fem Valley ‚ G∙ “ * � Fem Valley — I BE � � � � @ I B E BE Q- ’+ p KBE à IBE ÿI B E PI B E ð / þ A·ª * /þ J · ª V 8= “ /þ A · ª * `8 3 Ì €w ª’E Fem Valley � � �� � � � � � » y w þJ ·ªV p K BE � � � � I 1n Ð I BE � � � � @ I B E / þ A·ª * /þ A · ª * 4 Ì €w ª’E 2n a � �� � � � � 7 @ @ S@ @K B E z 3n È < ¶ “ * � � Æ % . ª ’ + R ’+ . 4n � �� � � � � � » . ability attract customer merit alleviate inadequate unfavorable economical conditions hearsay rumour scant anecdotal evidence The financial­planning office at Fern Valley University concludes that it is necessary to initiate a fund­raising campaign among alumni that will enable the university to expand the range of subjects it offers and increase the size of its library facilities. Its argument is based on a five­year decline in enrollments and admission applications together with the claim that students cite poor teaching and inadequate library resources as their chief sources of dissatisfaction with Fern Valley. The conclusion of the financial­planning office is not strongly supported by the reasons given. To begin with, this argument depends on the assumption that providing a greater range of subjects and a larger library will alleviate the students’ chief sources of dissatisfaction. However, the students have not complained about inadequate course offerings or about the size of the library; their complaint is that the existing courses are poorly taught and that library resources are inadequate. Offering more kinds of classes does not improve teaching quality, and increasing a library’s size does nothing to enhance its holdings, or resources. Accordingly, the recommendation does not bear directly on the problem as stated. Secondly, the proposal unfairly assumes that the recent enrollment and application decline was caused by poor teaching and inadequate library resources. It is equally possible that all colleges, regardless of teaching quality and library resources, have experienced similar declines. These declines may have been due to unrelated factors, such as unfavorable economic conditions, or an increase in high­paying computer jobs not requiring a college education. Thirdly, the author provides no support for the claim that students are dissatisfied with the teaching and library resources at Fern Valley. It is possible that the claim is based on hearsay or on scant anecdotal evidence. Without more information about the basis of the claim, we cannot be sure that the financial­planning office is addressing the real problems. In conclusion, the advice of the financial planning office is not well supported. To strengthen the argument, the planning office must provide evidence that students are dissatisfied with the range of subjects and with the library’s size, and that this dissatisfaction is the cause of the recent decline in enrollment and the number of admission applications. To better assess the argument as it stands, we would need to knowwhether the students’ attitudes were measured in a reliable, scientific manner. 38. The following appeared in the editorial section of a campus newspaper. “Because occupancy rates for campus housing fell during the last academic year, so did housing revenues. To solve the problem, campus housing officials should reduce the number of available housing units, thereby increasing the occupancy rates. Also, to keep students from choosing to live off-campus, housing officials should lower the rents, thereby increasing demand.” ° Ð v¯ ª A 0 v. · ª A Z B ÿ. V ÐZ“· ªA 2ð L È ¶ ª A À 1n È ( g ¶ ª V á / hª ’ E R ’ 2n a ’ 1U Ug U U5 = “ 3n a ’ 1U Ug U U5 = “ boosting rental maintenance oppressive seriousness trivailize 1 2 3 � pè° ’ E k m ` Ð 4 ´ª V È( condition, security, cleaning rent. q Ł + service noisy surroundings � � qŁ + � �‘ — G∙“*� � —— ¶ enrollments of students have sharply increasedh — G ∙ “ * � � available � p Ł + � � � � � � � ¨< ¶ “ *�� Æ% “ + � �R ��� + � The author of this article argues that, to reverse declining revenues from campus housing rentals, campus housing officials should decrease the number of available housing units and reduce rent prices on the units. The author’s line of reasoning is that fewer available units will limit supply while lower rents will increase demand, thereby improving overall occupancy rates, and that the resulting increase in occupancy rates will, in turn, boost revenues for the campus. This reasoning is unconvincing for several reasons. To begin with, the author assumes that boosting occupancy rates will improve revenues. All other factors remaining unchanged, this would be the case. However, the author proposes reducing both the supply of units and their rental prices. Both of these actions would tend to reduce revenues. The author provides no evidence that the revenue­enhancing effect of a higher occupancy rate will exceed the revenue­decreasing effect of reduced supply and price. Without such evidence, the argument is unconvincing. Secondly, the author assumes that lowering rents will lead to higher revenues by increasing demand. However, it is possible that demand would decrease, depending on the extent of the rent reduction as well as other factors—such as overall enrollment and the supply and relative cost of off­campus housing. Moreover, even if demand increases by lowering rents, revenues will not necessarily increase as a result. Other factors, such as maintenance and other costs of providing campus housing units and the reduced supply of rental units might contribute to a net decrease in revenue. Thirdly, in asserting that lowering rental rates will increase demand, the author assumes that current rental rates are causing low demand. However, low demand for student housing could be a function of other factors. For instance, the student housing units may be old and poorly maintained. Perhaps students find the campus housing rules oppressive, and therefore prefer to live off­campus; or perhaps enrollments are down generally, affecting campus housing occupancy. In conclusion, the author of this editorial has not argued effectively for a decrease in the number of available campus housing units and a reduction in rental rates for those units. To strengthen the argument, the author must show that a rent reduction will actually increase demand, and that the revenue­ enhancing effect of greater demand will outweigh the revenue­reducing effect of a smaller supply and of lower rental rates. 39. The following appeared in an Avia Airlines departmental memorandum. “On average, 9 out of every 1,000 passengers who traveled on Avia Airlines last year filed a complaint about our baggage-handling procedures. This means that although some 1 percent of our passengers were unhappy with those procedures, the overwhelming majority were quite satisfied with them; thus it would appear that a review of the procedures is not important to our goal of maintaining or increasing the number of Avia’s passengers.” Avia h — G ª ∙A � �� � � Avia � *? B 6 � . � ¨ &B6 pŁ Avia �9 o * ’ W 1%� pŁ ’ W? * 1000 h — G ∙ª 9 F � � � ’ W 1 �� � 2È < ¶ ª A ب * · F k ª’ W á $ ’ 3 1 2 Dµ seriousness trivailize complaint ¤ E• “ * � � qŁ +� � Õ4´ ªV È( g The conclusion in this Avia Airlines memorandum is that a review of the airline’s baggage­handling procedures will not further its goal of maintaining or increasing the number of Avia passengers. The author’s line of reasoning is that the great majority of Avia passengers are happy with baggage handling at the airline because only one percent of passengers who traveled on Avia last year filed a complaint about Avia’s procedures. This argument is problematic in two important respects. First, the argument turns on the assumption that the 99 percent of Avia passengers who did not complain were happy with the airline’s baggage­ handling procedures. However, the author provides no evidence to support this assumption. The fact that, on the average, 9 out of 1000 passengers took the time and effort to formally complain indicates nothing about the experiences or attitudes of the remaining 991. It is possible that many passengers were displeased but too busy to formally complain, while others had no opinion at all. Lacking more complete information about passengers’ attitudes, we cannot assume that the great majority of passengers who did not complain were happy. Secondly, in the absence of information about the number of passengers per flight and about the complaint records of competing airlines, the statistics presented in the memorandum might distort the seriousness of the problem. Given that most modern aircraft carry as many as 300 to 500 passengers, it is possible that Avia received as many as 4 or 5 complaints per flight. The author unfairly trivializes this record. Moreover, the author fails to compare Avia’s record with those of its competitors. It is possible that a particular competitor received virtually no baggage­handling complaints last year. If so, Avia’s one percent complaint rate might be significant enough to motivate customers to switch to another airline. In conclusion, the author has failed to demonstrate that a review of the baggage­handling procedures at Avia Airlines is not needed to maintain or increase the number of Avia’s passengers. To strengthen the argument, the author must at the very least provide affirmative evidence that most Avia passengers last year were indeed happy with baggage­handling procedures. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about the numbers of Avia passengers per flight last year and about the baggage­handling records of Avia’s competitors. 40. The following appeared as part of an article in a weekly newsmagazine. “The country of Sacchar can best solve its current trade deficit problem by lowering the price of sugar, its primary export. Such an action would make Sacchar better able to compete for markets with other sugar-exporting countries. The sale of Sacchar’s sugar abroad would increase, and this increase would substantially reduce Sacchar’s trade deficit.” — Sacchar � � � � � � � �� � � � � � —µ * ? B6 · Sacchar ¤ E • “ * . 9o * Sacchar � p Ł + � Sacchar ¤ E • “ * � 1R �� � +� & B6 Increasing sales by lowering the price of sugar will not *?B6 yeild an increase in income unless the increase in sales is sufficient to overcome the loss in income due to the lower price. in the absence of ... 2U g U U 5=“ x ƒÎ * - ’E p5=“ 3 p è° ’ E A trade-deficit occurs when a country spends more on imports than it earns from exports. However, the author provides no evidence that substantiates this assumption. It is possible that revenues from imports will increase dramatically in the near future; if so, the course of action proposed by the author might be unnecessary to solve Sacchar's trade deficit proplem. To the extent that this is the case... The author of this article argues that the country of Sacchar can best solve its current trade deficit problem by lowering the price of its main export, sugar. The line of reasoning is that this action would make Sacchar more competitive with other sugar­exporting countries, thereby increasing sales of Sacchar’s sugar abroad and, in turn, substantially reducing the trade­deficit. This line of reasoning is unconvincing for a couple of reasons. In the first place, this argument is based on an oversimplified analysis of the trade deficit problem Sacchar currently faces. A trade­deficit occurs when a country spends more on imports than it earns from exports. The author’s argument relies on the assumption that earnings from imports will remain constant. However, the author provides no evidence that substantiates this assumption. It is possible that revenues from imports will increase dramatically in the near future; if so, the course of action proposed by the author might be unnecessary to solve Sacchar’s trade deficit problem. Conversely, it is possible that revenues from imports are likely to decrease dramatically in the near future. To the extent that this is the case, lowering sugar prices may have a negligible countervailing effect, depending on the demand for Sacchar’s sugar. In the second place, increasing sales by lowering the price of sugar will not yield an increase in income unless the increase in sales is sufficient to overcome the loss in income due to the lower price. This raises three questions the author fails to address. First, will a price decrease in fact stimulate demand? Second, is demand sufficient to meet the increase in supply? Third, can Sacchar increase the sugar production sufficiently to overcome the deficit? In the absence of answers to these questions, we cannot assess the author’s proposal. In conclusion, the author provides an incomplete analysis of the problem and, as a result, provides a questionable solution. To better evaluate the proposal, we would need to know how revenues from imports are likely to change in the future. To strengthen the argument, the author must provide evidence that demand is sufficient to meet the proposed increase in supply, and that Sacchar has sufficient resources to accommodate the increase. 42. The following appeared in the opinion section of a national newsmagazine. “To reverse the deterioration of the postal service, the government should raise the price of postage stamps. This solution will no doubt prove effective, since the price increase will generate larger revenues and will also reduce the volume of mail, thereby eliminating the strain on the existing system and contributing to improved morale.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. p è ° ’+ ° ª v¯ * È< S ¶ ª * á % .ª ’+ F H v s·ª * ’+ Z B ÿa " Ð Z l ª· V ð ( È ª¶ V Àv 1R 2 US @ 3 1 2 3 ’+ J BE @ K BE & @ K BE s @K ƒÎ Q - ’ + 7g @ 5 =p “ � `º volume � � � � � volume � p Ł + ¨< ¶“* � �Æ % “ ’ + R fixed salary� � � � � � � � ‘ ’+ The author concludes that a postage­stamp price increase is needed to reduce the deterioration of the postal service. The author reasons that raising the price of stamps will accomplish this goal because it will generate more revenue, thereby eliminating the strain on the system. The author further reasons that a price increase will also reduce the volume of mail, thereby improving the morale of postal workers. The reasoning in this argument is problematic in three respects. The main problem with the argument is the author’s mistaken assumption that eliminating strain on the system and improving employee morale are mutually achievable by way of an increase in stamp prices. A price increase will generate more revenue only if the volume of mail remains constant or increases. But, if the volume of mail increases or remains constant, worker morale will not be improved. On the other hand, if the price increase reduces the volume of mail, revenues may decrease, and the strain on the system will not be eliminated. Consequently, eliminating the strain on the system and improving the morale of the workers cannot both be achieved by simply raising the price of postage stamps. Secondly, the author’s conclusion that the proposed price increase is necessary to reduce deterioration of the postal service relies on the assumption that no other action would achieve the same result. However, the author provides no evidence to substantiate this assumption. It is possible, for example, that careful cost­cutting measures that do not decrease worker morale might achieve the same goal. It is also possible that other revenue­enhancing measures that do not undermine employee morale are available. Thirdly, the author unfairly assumes that reducing mail volume and increasing revenues will improve employee morale. This is not necessarily the case. It is possible that employee morale is materially improved only by other means, and that additional revenues will not be used in ways that improve morale. It is also possible that a decrease in mail volume will result in a reduction of the size of the labor force, regardless of revenues, which in turn might undermine morale. In conclusion, the author’s proposed solution to the problem of the deterioration of the postal service will not work. Raising postage-stamp prices cannot bring about both of the outcomes the author identifies as being necessary to solve the problem. Before we can accept the argument, the author must modify the proposal accordingly and must provide more information about the relationship between employee morale and mail volume. 43. The following appeared in an article in the health section of a newspaper. “There is a common misconception that university hospitals are better than community or private hospitals. This notion is unfounded, however: the university hospitals in our region employ 15 percent fewer doctors, have a 20 percent lower success rate in treating patients, make far less overall profit, and pay their medical staff considerably less than do private hospitals. Furthermore, many doctors at university hospitals typically divide their time among teaching, conducting research, and treating patients. From this it seems clear that the quality of care at university hospitals is lower than that at other kinds of hospitals.” p yþ4 ·ª A ¨ G ´ª F�� ’W 20%: � � &B 6 è y4 ·ª A ° 9 Ì€y ª’ W I *? ’ W Ì €y ª’ W I 2 2 15%¨ G ´ ª A °Ðv ¯ ªA 0v . ·ª A 1n 2n 3n 1. ˜ qŁ° ’ W R �� ’W Ð IB 6 ¨< lower 2. ÀkB ·ª A &B 6 *'B 6 È y þ4 ·ªA * ?B 6 y þ4 ·ª A 8 Ì€y ª ’W s ¶ª A áFk ª’ W Z ’ rofit pW � � � � � � bY treating price is significantly � �� � � � � 7 @ � � � � � @ @ � � � � � @ K B E � � � 3 ¨ G ∙ “ common cases. serious illness � � � � � � � � 3. � � ��� � � � @ K B E � � � � � � � � � � � 7 @ � � � � In this argument the author concludes that university hospitals provide no better care than private or community hospitals. The author bases this conclusion on the following claims about university hospitals: the ones in this region employ 15 percent fewer doctors; they have a 20 percent lower success rate in treating patients; they pay their staffs less money; they make less profit than community hospitals; and they utilize doctors who divide their time between teaching, research and treating patients. This argument is unconvincing for several reasons. The most egregious reasoning error in the argument is the author’s use of evidence pertaining to university hospitals in this region as the basis for a generalization about all university hospitals. The underlying assumption operative in this inference is that university hospitals in this region are representative of all university hospitals. No evidence is offered to support this gratuitous assumption. Secondly, the only relevant reason offered in support of the claim that the quality of care is lower in university hospitals than it is at other hospitals is the fact that university hospitals have a lower success rate in treating patients. But this reason is not sufficient to reach the conclusion in question unless it can be shown that the patients treated in both types of hospitals suffered from similar types of maladies. For example, if university hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from rare diseases whereas other hospitals treat only those who suffer from known diseases and illnesses, the difference in success rates would not be indicative of the quality of care received. Finally, the author assumes that the number of doctors a hospital employs, its success rate in treating patients, the amount it pays its staff, and the profits it earns are all reliable indicators of the quality of care it delivers. No evidence is offered to support this assumption nor is it obvious that any of these factors is linked to the quality of care delivered to patients. Moreover, the fact that doctors in university hospitals divide their time among many tasks fails to demonstrate that they do a poorer job of treating patients than doctors at other kinds of hospitals. In fact, it is highly likely that they do a better job because they are more knowledgeable than other doctors due to their teaching and research. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to demonstrate that university hospitals in this region are representative of all university hospitals, as well as establishing a causal link between the various factors cited and the quality of care delivered to patients. 44. The following is part of a business plan created by the management of the Megamart grocery store. “Our total sales have increased this year by 20 percent since we added a pharmacy section to our grocery store. Clearly, the customer’s main concern is the convenience afforded by onestop shopping. The surest way to increase our profits over the next couple of years, therefore, is to add a clothing department along with an automotive supplies and repair shop. We should also plan to continue adding new departments and services, such as a restaurant and a garden shop, in subsequent years. Being the only store in the area that offers such a range of services will give us a competitive advantage over other local stores.” Megamart �� � � �� � � � � �� �� � � � �� �� � � � *? B6 °Ð v¯ ª A 9o * 0 v. · ª A * ,* p Ł . Z + � B *?B 6 ¼ � 9o * ÿ. V * ,* Ð Z“·ª A *?B 6 ðL ȶ ª A Y Àv 9 o �� 20%� * �� � � 1. 2. 3. 1. G∙ “* � 20% � �� � � ` ` O È ( g ¶ “* � � á F k ª ’ W $ U g U �� � � * ? B 6 � T xÐ x — ∙ “* � 4 sequence � p Ł + �� f ’W ƒÎé -’W section. � p Ł ƒÎé -’W p ?B6 +�� � p ? B 6demand pharmacy @ @ � �� � � @ ? B 6 2. 3. � � �� � � � � ‘ �� �� � � ��‘ ` profit � � pharmacy � p Ł + � � � medicine q Ł + �� ıF ´ª A clothing q Ł + � � È special shops õ V´ ª A ÈL convenience � � � The management of the Megamart grocery store concludes that adding new departments and services is the surest way to increase profits over the next couple of years. They are led to this conclusion because of a 20 percent increase in total sates, realized after the addition of a pharmacy section to the grocery store. On the basis of this experience, they concluded that the convenience of one­stop shopping was the main concern of their customers. The management’s argument is faulty in several respects. In the first place, the management assumes that the increase in total sales was due to the addition of the pharmacy section. However, the only evidence offered to support this conclusion is the fact that the addition of the pharmacy preceded the increase in sales. But the mere fact that the pharmacy section was added before the increase occurred is insufficient grounds to conclude that it was responsible for the increase. Many other factors could bring about this same result. Lacking a detailed analysis of the source of the sales increase, it would be sheer folly to attribute the increase to the addition of the pharmacy section. In the second place, even if it were the case that the increase in total sales was due to the addition of the pharmacy section, this fact alone is insufficient to support the claim that adding additional departments will increase sales even further. It is quite possible that the addition of the pharmacy section increased sales simply because there was no other pharmacy in the vicinity. The additional proposed departments and services, on the other hand, might be well represented in the area and their addition might have no impact whatsoever on the profits of the store. In other words, there may be relevant differences between the pharmacy section and the additional proposed sections that preclude them from having a similar effect on the sales of the store. In conclusion, the management’s argument is not well­reasoned. To strengthen the conclusion, the management must provide additional evidence linking the addition of the pharmacy section to the increase in total sales. It must also show that there are no exceptional reasons for the sales increase due to the pharmacy section that would not apply to the other proposed additions. 46. The following appeared in a memorandum from the directors of a security and safety consulting service. “Our research indicates that over the past six years no incidents of employee theft have been reported within ten of the companies that have been our clients. In analyzing the security practices of these ten companies, we have further learned that each of them requires its employees to wear photo identification badges while at work. In the future, therefore, we should recommend the use of such identification badges to all of our clients.” p — I= “ è 6 x �; U U8 = “ ° ’ wþJ ·ª V E 10 F x � ’E w J· ª V þ B 6=“ Ì € w ª’ E è 10 � pU ° ’ E y 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. È ( g ¶ ªV p5 =“ á / h ª’ W R ï8= “ U5= “ reported � p Ł + � � a ’ E reputation fame prestige à8 = “ — 8=“ a ’ 1U p è°’ E wþ J ·ª V w þ J ·ª V ¤ “·ª reputation ¤ E • “ * conceal � � � ’ 1U cautious � � x +�� � �� �� ƒ *- ’ E ——= “ Î company who provide �� �� ��� � @K= “ @ @� � ���@K “ = service rather than product� p Ł In this argument the directors of a security­and safety­consulting service conclude that the use of photo identification badges should be recommended to all of their clients as a means to prevent employee theft. Their conclusion is based on a study revealing that ten of their previous clients who use photo identification badges have had no incidents of employee theft over the past six­year period. The directors’ recommendation is problematic in several respects. In the first place, the directors’ argument is based on the assumption that the reason for the lack of employee theft in the ten companies was the fact that their employees wear photo identification badges. However, the evidence revealed in their research establishes only a positive correlation between the lack of theft and the requirement to wear badges; it does not establish a causal connection between them. Other factors, such as the use of surveillance cameras or spot checks of employees’ briefcases and purses could be responsible for lack of employee theft within the ten companies analyzed. In the second place, the directors assume that employee theft is a problem that is common among their clients and about which their clients are equally concerned. However, for some of their clients this might not be a problem at all. For example, companies that sell services are much less likely to be concerned about employee theft than those who sell products. Moreover, those that sell small products would be more concerned about theft than those that sell large products. Consequently, even if wearing badges reduces employee theft, it might not be necessary for all of the firm’s clients to follow this practice. In conclusion, the director’s recommendation is not well supported. To strengthen the conclusion they must establish a causal relation between the wearing of identification badges and the absence of employee theft. They also must establish that the firm’s clients are sufficiently similar to all profit from this practice. 47. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. “The owners of the Cumquat Cafe evidently made a good business decision in moving to a new location, as can be seen from the fact that the Cafe will soon celebrate its second anniversary there. Moreover, it appears that businesses are not likely to succeed at the old location: since the Cafe’s move, three different businesses—a tanning salon, an antique emporium, and a pet– grooming shop—have occupied its former spot.” Cumquat � �� � � � ¨< ¶ “ * � á F kª’W V 2 3’ @ @� � � � * ? B6 ° Ð v¯ ªA ‹ 0 v . ·ª A ƒ Îé- ’ W Z K p ?B 6 ÿ. 1. 2. 3. w þ A• “ * � w • E• “ * a �� � � � �� � � � y þ 4·ªA 9o* * ? B6 ; *,* . Ì €yª ’ W * ?B6 9 o* s 3 2 In this argument the author concludes that Cumquat Cafe was correct in its decision to move to a new location. In support of this assessment the author points out that while the Cafe has been in business for two years at its new location, three businesses have failed at its previous location. The author’s line of reasoning is that the cause of the failure of the three businesses is the fact that they all occupied the same location. This argument is problematic in two important respects. In the first place, no evidence has been offered to support the assumption that the reason the three businesses failed was their location. While location is an important contributing factor to a business’ success or failure, it is not the only such factor. Many other reasons—poor business practices, lack of advertising, or poor customer service—could just as likely account for their lack of success. Lacking a detailed analysis of the reasons these businesses failed, it would be foolish to attribute their failure to their location. In the second place, while location may have been a factor which contributed to the failure of these businesses, the reason may not have been the location itself but rather the suitability of the business to the location. For example, a pet­grooming shop or a tanning salon located in a downtown metropolitan business district is unlikely to succeed simply because this type of business is obviously unsuitable to the location. On the other hand, a bank in the same location might be extremely successful simply because of its suitability to the location. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the conclusion, the author would have to evaluate other possible causes of the failure of the three businesses, then in each case eliminate all possible causes except location. 52. The following editorial appeared in the Elm City paper. “The construction last year of a shopping mall in downtown Oak City was a mistake. Since the mall has opened, a number of local businesses have closed, and the downtown area suffers from an acute parking shortage, and arrests for crime and vagrancy have increased in the nearby Oak City Park. Elm City should pay attention to the example of the Oak City mall and deny the application to build a shopping mall in Elm City.”(o ) Discuss how well reasoned... etc. “The construction of last year of a shopping mall in downtown Oak City has done little for the residents of the community. Since the mall has opened, a number of local businesses have closed, and the downtown area suffers from an acute parking shortage. In addition, because the mall’s owner lives in nearby Elm City, the profits derived from sales at the mall are not being returned to the community. These problems, coupled with the increase in trash and litter in nearby Oak City park, demonstrate that Oak City did not use good judgment in allowing the construction of the mall in the first place.”(2 ) Elm �� � {� � � � ° Ð v¯ª A ƒ Î é-’ W � À Z ÿ ' B6 U ð'B6 ÿ. `'B V ÐZ “· ªA ðL ȶ ªA À 0 v . · ªA p ?B6 1. 2. 3. 1 2 3 ,� U g@ R � ’W ƒ Î é-’ W * ? B6 & B6 p ?B6 M ÿ ' B6 ð'B6 ƒ Î é- ’ W p?B6 * ? B6 `' To begin with, the author fails to establish the causal relationship between the shopping mall's opening and the closing of local businesses. Moreover, the author's conclusion is also based on the assumption that the shopping mall has caused the increase in crime and vagrancy. Finally, even if the shopping mall did cause the closing of local business and the increasing crime and vagrancy in Oak City, the author's prediction that Elm City will suffer from the same fate as Oak City is still open to doubt. )In this editorial the author rebukes Oak City for allowing the construction of a new downtown shopping mall. Citing a number of (¤ ‹ 6 · ª A problems that have occurred since the building of the mail, the author concludes that the residents of Oak City have not benefited from the mail and that Oak City exercised poor judgment in allowing the mail to be built. Among the problems cited by the author are the closure of local businesses, lack of parking in the downtown area, and increased trash and litter in a city park near the mall. Moreover, the author argues that profits derived from sales are not benefiting Oak City because the owner of the mall lives in another city. The author’s argument is problematic in several respects. In the first place, the author assumes that addition of the new mall is the cause of the various problems cited. The only evidence offered to support this claim is that the construction of the mall occurred before these problems manifested themselves. However, this evidence is insufficient to establish the claim in question. A chronological relationship is only one of the indicators of a causal relationship between two events. In the second place, the author has focused only on negative effects the mall has had on the city. A more detailed analysis of the situation might reveal that the positive benefits for the city far outweigh the problems on which the author focuses. For example, new jobs might have been created for the residents of Oak City, and tax revenues might have been increased for the city. Lacking a more comprehensive analysis of the impact of the mail on Oak City, it is presumptuous on the part of the author to conclude that Oak City’s decision to allow the mall to be built was incorrect. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to demonstrate that the construction of the mall caused the various problems mentioned. The author would also have to show that the negative effects of the project outweighed the positive effects. ?54. The following appeared in an Excelsior Company memorandum. “The Excelsior Company plans to introduce its own brand of coffee. Since coffee is an expensive food item, and since there are already many established brands of coffee, the best way to gain customers for the Excelsior brand is to do what Superior, the leading coffee company, did when it introduced the newest brand in its line of coffees: conduct a temporary sales promotion that offers free samples, price reductions, and discount coupons for the new brand.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. 8 Ð v¯ ª* ° u —— i H v s·ª * Z B °Ð v ¯ ª *v a·ª V H ÿa Z " U Ð Z l · ªV ð ( È ¶ ªV ÿa Àv " 1. 2. 3. R 1 2 3 È( S ¶ª È( S ¶ª A A ’W á F .ª ’+ á F .ª ’+ &B E R R ’+ ’+ @K B … E·ª A SUPERIOR E • “* � � pŁ + �� @ G= · ª * È <S EC qŁ + �� high quality coffee E • “ * � E•“ win large amount of customers � � EC � pŁ + � � � � � �� � � � � � � � � 7 @ �� � � � @ @ � � � � � @ KB E � z off set � cost. This company memorandum recommends that Excelsior conduct a temporary sales promotion for its new brand of coffee that includes offering free samples, price reductions, and discount coupons. This recommendation is based on the fact that Superior, the leading coffee company, used just such a promotion to introduce the newest brand in its line of coffees. This argument is unconvincing because it relies on three questionable assumptions. First of all, the argument rests on the assumption that a promotional strategy that works for one company will work for another. However, Excelsior and Superior may not be sufficiently similar to warrant this assumption. Promotional techniques that work for a leader with established name recognition for its brand of coffees may be ineffective for a company with no similar name recognition new to the brand coffee market. Accordingly, Excelsior might be better advised to employ some other strategy, such as a media advertising plan, to first attain broad name recognition. The argument also depends on the assumption that Excelsior can afford a promotional plan similar to Superior’s. However, free samples, price reductions, and discounts all reduce profits and may actually result in temporary losses. While a leading company with other profitable products in the same line can absorb a temporary loss, for a fledgling competitor this strategy might be very risky and may even result in business failure. Finally, the argument relies on the assumption that Superior’s promotional campaign for its newest coffee was successful. However, the memo provides no evidence that this was the case. It is possible that the promotion was entirely ineffective, and that Superior remains the leader in its field despite this small failure. If so, Excelsior may be ill­advised to follow Superior’s promotional strategy. In conclusion, the two companies are too dissimilar to justify the recommendation that Excelsior model its promotional strategy on Superior’s. To strengthen the argument, the author of the memo must establish that Excelsior has sufficient operating capital to launch the recommended sales campaign, and that this strategy would be more effective than another strategy, such as using extensive media advertising. 55. The following appeared in an Excelsior Company memorandum. “The Excelsior Company plans to introduce its own brand of coffee. Since coffee is an expensive food item, and since there are already many established brands of coffee, the best way to gain customers for the Excelsior brand is to do what Superior, the leading coffee company, did when it introduced the newest brand in its line of coffees: conduct a temporary sales promotion that offers free samples, price reductions, and discount coupons for the new brand.” This company memorandum recommends that Excelsior conduct a temporary sales promotion for its new brand of coffee that includes offering free samples, price reductions, and discount coupons. This recommendation is based on the fact that Superior, the leading coffee company, used just such a promotion to introduce the newest brand in its line of coffees. This argument is unconvincing because it relies on three questionable assumptions. First of all, the argument rests on the assumption that a promotional strategy that works for one company will work for another. However, Excelsior and Superior may not be sufficiently similar to warrant this assumption. Promotional techniques that work for a leader with established name recognition for its brand of coffees may be ineffective for a company with no similar name recognition new to the brand coffee market. Accordingly, Excelsior might be better advised to employ some other strategy, such as a media advertising plan, to first attain broad name recognition. The argument also depends on the assumption that Excelsior can afford a promotional plan similar to Superior’s. However, free samples, price reductions, and discounts all reduce profits and may actually result in temporary losses. While a leading company with other profitable products in the same line can absorb a temporary loss, for a fledgling competitor this strategy might be very risky and may even result in business failure. Finally, the argument relies on the assumption that Superior’s promotional campaign for its newest coffee was successful. However, the memo provides no evidence that this was the case. It is possible that the promotion was entirely ineffective, and that Superior remains the leader in its field despite this small failure. If so, Excelsior may be ill­advised to follow Superior’s promotional strategy. In conclusion, the two companies are too dissimilar to justify the recommendation that Excelsior model its promotional strategy on Superior’s. To strengthen the argument, the author of the memo must establish that Excelsior has sufficient operating capital to launch the recommended sales campaign, and that this strategy would be more effective than another strategy, such as using extensive media advertising. 61. The following appeared as part of a recommendation by one of the directors of the Beta Company. “The Alpha Company has just reduced its workforce by laying off fifteen percent of its employees in all divisions and at all levels, and it is encouraging early retirement for other employees. As you know, the Beta Company manufactures some products similar to Alpha’s, but our profits have fallen over the last few years. To improve Beta’s competitive position, we should try to hire a significant number of Alpha’s former workers, since these experienced workers can provide valuable information about Alpha’s successful methods, will require little training, and will be particularly motivated to compete against Alpha.” β α˜ q è ° ’ W ˜ qè ° ’W È <, ¶ ª A p è p s *·ªA p s *·ªA á F kª’W ° È V ’ 15� � ’ α α� W * ? B6 . α˜ qè ° ’ W βh p s *·ªA * ·oª A 9* αh *· ªA *· ªA α È L , ¶ αh È L , ¶ β pè ° ’W 1. 2. 3. 4. According to the common sense the workers who are laid off are always the least effective and well-experienced. Whether the Alpha Company is successful or not is still open to doubt. The recruitment will bring benefit to the company and cost at the same time. No conclusion can be given until the benefit-cost analysis has been made. The products the two companies manufacture are just similar. The skills the Alpha company's workers own will not be applicable to the Beta company. 1. 2. 3. 4. A p K= “ H “ ·ª V A A R� ï 8= “ ’E U 8= “ ` Ð4 ´ ªV È (g à 8=“ 6= “ w þJ · ª V cost — 8=“ w þJ · ªV w þ J· ª V U A� pè ° ’ E 5 = w þJ· ª V W Ì € wª ’ E y I B— = “ q è °’ E A director of Beta Company suggests that Beta can improve its competitive position by hiring a significant number of former Alpha Company employees who have recently retired or been laid off. The director’s reasoning is that because Alpha manufactures some products similar to Beta’s, former Alpha employees would be experienced and need little training, could provide valuable information about Alpha’s successful methods, and would be particularly motivated to compete against Alpha. The director’s argument is problematic in several respects. First of all, the argument presupposes that Alpha’s methods are successful. This is not necessarily the case. To the contrary, the fact that Alpha has laid off 15 percent of its employees in every division and at every level suggests that Alpha’s methods may have been unsuccessful and that downsizing was necessary for the company to minimize financial losses. Secondly, the director assumes that the formerAlpha employees hired by Beta will be well­trained and valuable. During a typical lay­off, however, the best and most experienced employees are typically the last to be laid off. By following the director’s advice, Beta would probably be hiring Alpha’s least efficient and least experienced employees—that is, those who would be least valuable to Beta. Thirdly, the author assumes that Alpha and Beta are sufficiently similar so that former Alpha employees could provide special value for Beta. However, we are informed only that Beta manufactures “some products similar to Alpha’s.” It is possible that former Alpha employees have experience with only a small segment of Beta’s product line, and thus have little inside information of any value to Beta. Finally, the claim that former Alpha employees would be motivated to compete against Alpha is partially unwarranted. While many of those who were laid off may be so motivated, those who retired early from Alpha probably departed on good terms with Alpha, and would in any event be unmotivated to reenter the work force. In conclusion, the argument fails to provide key facts needed to assess it. To better evaluate the director’s suggestion, we would need more information about why Alpha reduced its work force, what type of workers left Alpha and under what circumstances, and how similar Alpha’s range of products is to Beta’s. 62. The following appeared in the letters-to-the-editor section of a local newspaper. “Muscle Monthly, a fitness magazine that regularly features pictures of bodybuilders using state-of-the-art exercise machines, frequently sells out, according to the owner of Skyview Newsstand. To help maximize fitness levels in our town’s residents, we should, therefore, equip our new community fitness center with such machines.” p 2 è ° . ’ W . 9o* 9 o * skyview q Ł + ��‘ — G ∙“ * ÈL Muscle Monthly �� � � � � � �@ K B E � � � � � � � � ��@ K B E � � 1. The bodybuilders may just pretend to be using the state-of-the-art exercise machines while, in fact, their excellent body conditions are due to the use of other types of equipment. And, they just do so for the advertisement purpose. 2. 3. 12 2 32 The circulation is just one of the indicators of the popularity of the magazine. What is more, I can find no direct relationship between the popularity of the magazine and the author's suggestion that we should equip the community with the state-of-the-art excercise machine. The machines for body building will not necessarily have the same effect on fitness. . ’ 1U U gU U 5 =“ ¨ (g ¶ V ª á /h ª ’ E R ’E ˆ z ) · ª body­building ­ = • “ * � � fitness � � � cardiovascular fitness2 : In this argument the author concludes that the new community fitness center should be equipped with the state­of­the­art exercise machines featured in Muscle Monthly magazine. In support of this recommendation two reasons are offered: (1) Muscle Monthly contains pictures of bodybuilders using such machines, and (2) Muscle Monthly is a popular magazine, as evidenced by the fact that it frequently sells out at the local newsstand. This argument is questionable on two counts. First, a major implication of the argument is that the bodybuilders pictured using the machines in Muscle Monthly magazine reached their state of fitness as a result of using these machines. The only evidence offered to support this contention, however, is the pictures in the magazine. It is possible that the bodybuilders pictured use different equipment for their workouts and are merely posing with the machines for advertising purposes. Second, the author assumes that machines that are suitable for bodybuilding will also be suitable to help maximize the fitness levels of the town’s residents. This assumption is highly questionable. Machines designed to increase muscle development are significantly different from those designed to increase cardiovascular fitness. Consequently, it is unlikely that the machines pictured in the magazine will be of much use to help maximize the fitness levels of the town’s residents. In conclusion, this argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to show that the bodybuilders pictured using the exercise machines actually used the machines to reach their level of muscle development. Additionally, the author would have to show that the machines were suitable for increasing the fitness levels of the persons using them. 63. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. “The Cumquat Café made a mistake in moving to a new location. After one year at the new spot, it is doing about the same volume of business as before, but the owners of the RoboWrench plumbing supply wholesale outlet that took over its old location are apparently doing better: RoboWrench is planning to open a store in a neighboring city.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc. X Cumquat A• “ * � �� � � � �� � ( ¤ cþ A · ª5 Ì€ c ª ’ ” h n Robo Wrench Robo Wrench �p Ł +� � � � � 1. 2. 3. 4. False analogy Other factors other than location that may contribute to the faliure of the Cumquat Cafe should be considered and ruled out. Likewise, there may be some other factors that will explain the success of the success of the RoboWrench plumbing. One year's poor performance is too wake an evidence to conclude that the Cafe has made a mistake to relocate. According to this newspaper article, the Cumquat Cafe made a mistake by relocating one year ago. The author supports this claim by pointing out that Cumquat is doing about the same volume of business as before it moved, while RoboWrench plumbing supply outlet, which took over Cumquat’s old location, is apparently “doing better” because its owners plan to open a new outlet in a nearby city. This argument suffers from several critical flaws. To begin with, the two businesses are too dissimilar for meaningful comparison. Cumquat’s old location may simply have been better suited to hardware, plumbing, and home improvement businesses than to cafes and restaurants. The article’s claim that Cumquat made a mistake in moving fails to take this possibility into account. Secondly, the article’s claim that RoboWrench is “doing better” since it took over Cumquat’s old location is too vague to be meaningful. The author fails to provide a second term of this comparison. We are not informed whether RoboWrench is doing better than before it moved, better than other plumbing stores, or better than Cumquat. This uninformative comparison is worthless as evidence from which to judge the wisdom of Cumquat’s decision to relocate. Thirdly, the claim that RoboWrench is doing better is unwarranted by the evidence. The mere fact that RoboWrench plans to open a new store in a nearby city does not by itself establish that business is good. It is possible that the purpose of this plan is to compensate for lackluster business at the current location. Or perhaps the RoboWrench owners are simply exercising poor business judgment. Finally, the claim that Cumquat made a mistake in moving may be too hasty, since the conclusion is based on only one year’s business at thenew location. Moreover, given the time it ordinarily takes for a business to develop a new customer base in a new location, the fact that Cumquat’s volume of business is about the same as before it moved tends to show that the move was a good decision, not a mistake. In conclusion, the claim that Cumquat’s move was a mistake is ill­founded, since it is based on both poor and incomplete comparisons as well as on a premature conclusion. To better assess the argument, we need to know what the author is comparing RoboWrench’s performance to; we also need more information about the extent of RoboWrench’s success at this location and why its owners are opening a new store. 64. The following appeared in a memorandum from the Director of Human Resources to the executive officers of Company X. “Last year, we surveyed our employees on improvements needed at Company X by having them rank, in order of importance, the issues presented in a list of possible improvements. Improved communications between employees and management was consistently ranked as the issue of highest importance by the employees who responded to the survey. As you know, we have since instituted regular communications sessions conducted by high-level management, which the employees can attend on a voluntary basis. Therefore, it is likely that most employees at Company X now feel that the improvement most needed at the company has been made.” ˜ � p è° � X¨ < , ¶ ªt ’” ° Ð v ”ª á“ S ª ’ * · ª I X— B 6 Hv ” · ªF ’ X � p Z @I B E è C ° cþ A · ª’ ” c þA· ª ÿ 3 F “· ªÐZ Ì€ c ª ’ ” ð<È ¶ªÀvè h“ (p K 1. 2. 3. B6 ïI B 6 àI B E P IBE “ c þ A ·ª - cþ A · ª ” ) The result of a last year's survey does not necessarily represent the improvement most needed of this year. How was the survey held has not been illustrated by the author, thus making the conclusion groundless. Whether the implement of the mentioned resolution is right or wrong is still unkonwn, it is still too early to say the improvement has been made. � ¨ < ¶ “ *� � Æ ø anonymous � � � / hª’ E R named� p Ł +� � � ’E accept � 1 2 The Director of Human Resources concludes that most employees at Company X feel that the improvement most needed at the company has been satisfactorily addressed. Two reasons are offered in support of this conclusion. First, a survey of employees showed that the issue respondents were most concerned about was employee­management communication. Second, the company has since instituted regular voluntary sessions for employees and management designed to improve communication. The director’s argument is questionable for two reasons. To begin with, the validity of the survey is doubtful. Lacking information about the number of employees surveyed and the number of respondents, it is impossible to assess the validity of the results. For example, if 200 employees were surveyed but only two responded, the conclusion that most of the employees ranked employee­management communication as the most pressing issue would be highly suspect. Because the argument offers no evidence that would rule out interpretations such as this, the survey results are insufficient to support the author’s conclusion. Furthermore, even if the survey accurately ranks certain issues according to level of employee concern, the highest­ranked issue in the survey might not be the issue about which employees are most concerned. Why? The improvement most needed from the point of view of the employees might not have appeared as one of the choices on the survey. For example, if the list of improvements presented on the survey was created by management rather than by the employees, then the issues of greatest concern to the employees might not be included on the list. Lacking information about how the survey was prepared, it is impossible to assess its reliability. Consequently, any conclusion based on it is highly questionable. In conclusion, the director’s conclusion is not well­founded. To strengthen the argument, additional information regarding the way in which the employee survey was prepared and conducted is required. 67. The following appeared in an article in a travel magazine. “After the airline industry began requiring airlines to report their on-time rates, Speedee Airlines achieved the number one on-time rate, with over 89 percent of its flights arriving on time each month. And now Speedee is offering more flights to more destinations than ever before. Clearly, Speedee is the best choice for today’s business traveler.” ÈL , ¶ ª A qŁ +� á Fkª ’ W ` GK· ª A V ’W Speedee ¨ < ¶ “ * � ÈL Speedee � p Ł + � á Fkª ’ W V 89�’ � � � � � � - Speedee 1. 2. 3. 4. �p Ł +� ¨< ¶“*� +� ����� á Fkª ’ W ƒ Îé- ’ W $ p ?B6 ’W ÿ'B 6 ð 'B6 ` 'B6 ˜q Ł +� ` GK· ª A È L ,: We can image that the main purpose of airline industry to require on-times rates report is to identify and award the best companies, it is easy to suppose that the Speedee Airlines, which can benefit from its report, give unfair and inaccurate date. A travel magazine article claims that Speedee Airlines is the best choice for today’s business traveler. To support this claim, the author points out that Speedee has ranked first in terms of on­time arrival rate since the airline industry began requiring airlines to report their on­time rates. The claim is also based on the assertion that “Speedee new offers more flights to more destination than ever before.” This argument suffers from several critical flaws. First of all, the claim relies on a couple of unwarranted assumptions. One assumption is that on­time rates, number of flights, and destination choices are the only features of airlines service that determine how a particular airline would rank overall for a business traveler. However, the author of this article ignores other factors such as fare prices and discounts, safety record, baggage­handing, and in­flight amenities. Another assumption is that Speedee’s overall on­time record affects business and no­business travelers equally. However, this is not necessarily the case. Speedee may have a poorer record for commuter flights, which are popular among business travelers, than for other flights. If so, the conclusion that Speedee is the best choice for the business traveler would be seriously undermined. Secondly, the author’s claim that “Speedee now offers more flights to more destinations than ever before” is too vague to be meaningful. We are not informed how many flights or how many destinations were previously offered or how many are offered now. Moreover, the article makes no comparison with other airlines regarding these features. Without these comparisons, the claim is worthless as a reason for choosing Speedee over another airline. Thirdly, the article fails to indicate how long ago the industry began requiring airlines to report on­time rates. If the requirement was imposed recently, then the brief reporting period may be insufficient to show that the airlines’ relative on­time performance will continue in the future. Moreover, the article fails to provide evidence that all airlines, regardless of on­time record, actually reported, or that the reports are accurate. In conclusion, the article’s claim that Speedee is the best choice for the business traveler is unsubstantiated and may be too hasty. To better evaluate the article’s claim, we need more information about Speedee;s other features that contribute to its overall appeal, about its on-time record for commuter flights specifically, and about the integrity and length of the reporting upon which the ranking was based. 68. The following appeared in a memorandum to the planning department of an investment firm. “Costs have begun dropping for several types of equipment currently used to convert solar energy into electricity. Moreover, some exciting new technologies for converting solar energy are now being researched and developed. Hence we can expect that solar energy will soon become more cost efficient and attractive than coal or oil as a source of electrical power. We should, therefore, encourage investment in Solario, a new manufacturer of solar-powered products. After all, Solario’s chief executive was once on the financial planning team for Ready-to-Ware, a software engineering firm that has shown remarkable growth since its recent incorporation.” p * ,* Ware� � � � � � è °Ð v ¯ª A *? B 6 9o * ° ’ 0 v .· ª A u * ,* W Z ƒÎ é-’W *? B6 B p?B ł Solario 6 E ∙ “ ½ ÿ. Solario V CEO � ÐZ“· ª A Ready to ð L È ¶ ªA Àv 1. 2. 3. 4. The decrease of the cost of several types of equipment does not necessarily guarantee the reduction of the overall cost of the convertion of solar energy into electicity. It is still too early to say that the technologies for converting the solar energy that are being researched and developed will certainly make the solar energy cost efficient and attractive. Even if the cost reduction of the solar energy is immediately accessible, it is still imprudent to say the solar energy is more attractive compared with the coal and oil as a source of electrical power. The former performance of the CEO does not guarantee the future success of the Solario. From the autor's assertion, the CEO's ability to manage this solar energy company is, in fact, somewhat dubious, because he or she once was on the financial planning team for Ready-to-ware, which is in the industry completely different from the Solario. ¨ (g ¶ ª V á / hª’ E cost R � � � ’ E R 6 =“ ’E . U5 1 2 32 � � � ø Å CEO In this argument the planning department of investment firm reaches the conclusion that the firm should encourage investment in Solario—a new manufacturer of solar­powered products. The basis for this recommendation is the expectation that solar energy will soon become more cost efficient and attractive than other forms of energy. This expectation is based on recent declines in the cost of equipment used to convert solar energy into electricity and on new technologies that are being developed for this purpose. An additional reason give in support of this recommendation is that Solario’s chief executive was a member of the financial planning team for a company that has shown remarkable growth since its recent incorporation. While this argument has some merit, there are a few assumptions that deserve attention. In the first place, the author assumes that the previous business experience of Solario’s chief executive will be an asset in the development of the new company. While this may be the case, the fact that the two companies deal in vastly different products is cause for some concern. The executive’s expertise in the software­engineering business will not necessarily be applicable to the solar­powered products business. In the second place, the author assumes that the major impediment to the use of solar­powered products is the cost of solar energy and that, given a choice, consumers would prefer products powered by solar energy over those powered by energy derived from coal or oil. On the face of it, this assumption seems acceptable; but it may be that there are other factors besides cost that make solar energy less desirable than other forms of energy. In conclusion, this argument is convincing. To strengthen the argument additional evidence indicating consumer preference for solar­powered products over products powered by conventional forms of energy would be desirable. 70. The following appeared in a memorandum from the president of a company that makes shampoo. “A widely publicized study claims that HR2, a chemical compound in our shampoo, can contribute to hair loss after prolonged use. This study, however, involved only 500 subjects. Furthermore, we have received no complaints from our customers during the past year, and some of our competitors actually use more HR2 per bottle of shampoo than we do. Therefore, we do not need to consider replacing the HR2 in our shampoo with a more expensive alternative.” p è° ’ W ðvJ HR2 �� �� ¤¿ ¶ª HR2 9o* * ,* 9o* * ,* * ? BHR2 F�� 6 v’ W * ? B 6500 � p Ł ° ’ B W &B6 *?B The president of the company that produces Glabrous Shampoo argues against removing the ingredient HR2 from the shampoo even though a scientific study claims that prolonged use of HR2 can contribute to hair loss. Three reasons are cited as the basis for this decision. First, it is argued that since the scientific study involved only 500 subjects, it can be disregarded. Second, none of Glabrous’ customers have complained of problems during the past year. And, finally, Glabrous’ competitors use more HR2 per bottle than Glabrous. The president’s decision is problematic in several respects. To begin with, the fact that the scientific study on HR2 involved only 500 subjects is insufficient grounds to dismiss the results of that study. If the subjects for the study were randomly chosen and represent a diverse cross section of the population of shampoo users, the results will be reliable regardless of the number of participants. Next, the scientific study determined that prolonged use could contribute to hair loss. While “prolonged use” was not defined in the memorandum, the fact that none of Glabrous’ customers have complained of problems during the past year is not a reliable reason to believe that problems will not arise in the future. Finally, the fact that Glabrous’ competitors use more HR2 in their products than Glabrous uses is irrelevant to the question of whether Glabrous should remove HR2 from its product. Moreover, rather than providing a reason for not removing the compound, this fact serves better as a reason for doing so. By removing HR2 from its product Glabrous could gain an edge over its competitors. 72. The following appeared as part of a recommendation from the business manager of a department store. “Local clothing stores reported that their profits decreased, on average, for the three-month period between August 1 and October 31. Stores that sell products for the home reported that, on average, their profits increased during this same period. Clearly, consumers are choosing to buy products for their homes instead of clothing. To take advantage of this trend, we should reduce the size of our clothing departments and enlarge our home furnishings and household products departments.” p 8 4·ªA è ° 1 y þ4·ªA ° 10 : ’ 31 � W 3P� Ì €y ª’ W ƒ Î é - ’W I p?B 6 ÿ 'B 6 2 ð ' B6 `' B 6 1. 2. 3. A period of three month is too short to draw a general conclusion of the overall trend. The past three months' trend does not guarantee the same in the future. Whether the reports from the local clothing stores and stores that sell products for the home are reliable or not are still open to doubt, thus making the author's suggestion groundless. ¨ (g ¶ ªV � pè ° ’E á /h ª ’E " ’ 1 2 Based upon sales reports over a three­month period that indicate an increase in profits for stores that sell products for the home and a decrease in profits for clothing stores, the business manager of a department store concludes that consumers are choosing to purchase home furnishings rather than clothing. On the basis of this conclusion, the manager recommends a reduction in the size of the clothing department and an increase in the size of the home­ furnishings department. This recommendation is problematic in two critical respects. In the first place, the author’s conclusion that consumers are choosing to buy products for their homes instead of clothing is based upon too small a sample. Data gathered from a three­month period is insufficient to establish the conclusion drawn from it. It is quite possible that the three­month period chosen is idiosyncratic and not representative of entire year’s sales. If so, reducing the size of the clothing departments and enlarging the home­ furnishings departments may be a costly mistake. In the second place, the data collected during the three month period may be biased. The fact that the data reflects sales in local stores is cause for concern. It is possible that the sales trend in a particular location is not representative of sales in other regions. For example, sales of clothing in Florida during the winter months are likely to be quite different from sales of clothing in Alaska during the same period. In conclusion, this argument is not persuasive as it stands. A more convincing argument must provide additional sales data, collected at different periods of the year and at different locations, that substantiates the trend in question. 86. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a daily newspaper. “Company A has a large share of the international market in video-game hardware and software. Company B, the pioneer in these products, was once a $12 billion-a-year giant but collapsed when children became bored with its line of products. Thus Company A can also be expected to fail, especially given the fact that its games are now in so many American homes that the demand for them is nearly exhausted.” s 2 aF �pŁ ° ’ W d ’W a@ @ 6 &B6 ´ b qè° ’ W * ?B6 • ª * • ‡ À ¶ª A È L, A 120 � p Ł ° ’ W ƒ Î é - ’W p ?B 6 1 E ´ªA 2 A �� � � � share � � � ° ¥6 In this argument the author reasons that the failure of Company B portends a similar fate for Company A. The grounds for this prediction are similarities that exist between the two companies. The line of reasoning is that since both companies produce video­game hardware and software and both enjoy a large share of the market for these products, the failure of one is a reliable predictor of the failure of the other. This argument is unconvincing. The major problem with the argument is that the stated similarities between Company A and B are insufficient to support the conclusion that Company A will suffer a fate similar to Company B’s. In fact, the similarities stated are irrelevant to that conclusion. Company B did not fail because of its market share or because of the general type of product it produced; it failed because children became bored with its particular line of products. Consequently, the mere fact that Company A holds a large share of the video­game hardware and software market does not support the claim that Company A will also fail. An additional problem with the argument is that there might be relevant differences between Company A and Company B, which further undermine the conclusion. For example, Company A’s line of products may differ from Company B’s in that children do not become bored with them. Another possible difference is that Company B’s share of the market may have been entirely domestic whereas Company A has a large share of the international market. In conclusion this is a weak argument. To strengthen the conclusion the author would have to show that there are sufficient relevant similarities between Company A and Company B as well as no relevant differences between them. 92. The following is taken from an editorial in a local newspaper. “Over the past decade, the price per pound of citrus fruit has increased substantially. Eleven years ago, Megamart charged 5 cents apiece for lemons, but today it commonly charges over 30 cents apiece. In only one of these last eleven years was the weather unfavorable for growing citrus crops. Evidently, then, citrus growers have been responsible for the excessive increase in the price of citrus fruit, and strict pricing regulations are needed to prevent them from continuing to inflate prices.” n 1 10 q è ° ’ E yþJ · ªV € nW ´ ªV q È 11 � Megamart Ł9 ∙ “* Ì€ wª ’ E y 5 � � � � �� � � € 30 Ł 9 ∙ “* n 11 Ł 9 ∙ “* � � A • “* � � Ł 9 ∙ “* � � � � � �� � � 22 ° Ðv ¯ ª V 0v a ——V Z J ÿa " Ð Zl· ªV ð ( È ¶ª V À monetary inflation, increased distribution and labor costs, or alterations in supply and demand conditions 1 2 3 4 ) qè°’ W qŁ +� 9o* ƒ Î é- ’ W à Y •´ ª A à Y •´ ª A ÈL, ¶ *,* p?B 6 ÿ'B6 dealers n 2 ∙ “ * � *?B6 ð'B6 S `' È L targeted customers � p Ł + � � � � � � � � �� In this editorial the author argues for the imposition of strict pricing regulations in order to prevent citrus growers from continued inflation of prices of citrus fruit. The need for such regulation is supported by the author’s contention that citrus growers have been unnecessarily raising prices of citrus fruit in the past. The evidence for this allegation is the fact that the price of lemons at Megamart has increased from 15 cents per pound to over a dollar a pound during the preceding 11­year period. The author maintains that this increase is unjustifiable because weather conditions have been favorable to citrus production in all but one of those years. This argument is flawed for several reasons. First and foremost, the author assumes that the only factor that influences the price of citrus fruit is the weather. Other factors such as monetary inflation, increased distribution and labor costs, or alterations in supply and demand conditions are completely ignored as possible sources for the increase. The charge that citrus growers have unnecessarily raised prices can be sustained only if these and other possible factors can be completely ruled out as contributing to the price increases. Since the author fails to address these factors, the recommendation calling for strict pricing regulations can be dismissed out of hand as frivolous. Second, the author assumes that the only way to combat increased prices is through government intervention. In a free enterprise system many other means of affecting the pricing of goods are available. For example, boycotting a product and thereby influencing supply and demand conditions of the commodity is an effective means of influencing the price of the product. In a free market economy the call for price regulation by the government should occur only when all other means to rectify the problem have been exhausted. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument it would be necessary to show that the only factor influencing the price increases is the growers’ desire for increased profits. 95. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. “Hippocrene Plumbing Supply recently opened a wholesale outlet in the location once occupied by the Cumquat Cafe. Hippocrene has apparently been quite successful there because it is planning to open a large outlet in a nearby city. But the Cumquat Cafe, one year after moving to its new location, has seen its volume of business drop somewhat from the previous year’s. Clearly, the former site is a better business location, and the Cumquat Cafe has made a mistake in moving to its new address.” Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc. Hippocrene �� � � � � � � ‘ ‚ `¶ “ �� �� � � � � ‘ 9 Cumquat �p Ł + � � � � / þ A·ª * Hippocrene F� � � + � � � J /þ A · ª * 2 BE Ì€ w ª’ E y umquat � � C @K Cumquat —I BE � � � � @ I B E 12 gratuitous assumption: It is absurd to say the Hippocrene has been quite successful in the original location of Cumquat Café Restaurant only because the former is planning to open a large outlet in a nearby city. 22 false analogy 32 causal oversimplification: Other factors other than the location that may contribute to the success of the H and the failure of the C should be considered and ruled out. ( )Business is obviously unsuitable to the location. On the other hand, a bank in the same location might be extremely successful simply because of its suitability to the location. In the third place, the author’s claim that Hippocrene has been successful at Cumquat’s previous location is unwarranted. The fact that Hippocrene intends to open a new outlet is insufficient to establish this claim. It is possible that the plan to open a new outlet was prompted by a lack of business at the Cumquat location. Finally, the author unfairly assumes that one year’s time at the new location is adequate to conclude whether Cumquat made a mistake in moving to that location. Its is entirely possible that given more time, perhaps another year or so, Cumquat will become profitable at the location. Common sense informs me that this is a distinct possibility, since it often takes more than one year for a restaurant to establish a customer base at a given location. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the conclusion the author would have to evaluate other possible causes of the performance of the businesses and eliminate all except location as the cause in each case. Additionally, it would be necessary to show that location rather than suitability to a location was the cause of the success of Hippocrene and the failure of Cumquat. 97. The following appeared as part of an article in a computer magazine. “A year ago Apex Manufacturing bought its managers computers for their homes and paid for telephone connections so that the managers could access Apex computers and data files from home after normal business hours. Since last year, productivity at Apex has increased by 15 percent. Other companies can learn from the success at Apex: given home computers and access to company resources, employees will work additional hours at home and thereby increase company profits.” n �� Apex < � � � Apex ` ¶ ªV ƒ Î*- ’ E 15%� � �� p 5=“ Apex � � � ÿ8= “ 91U ð8=“ ` 8Apex � � � � =“ U gU Ø“· U5= “ • In this article the author attributes Apex Manufacturing’s 15 percent increase in productivity over the past year to its decision to equip its manager with computers and paid telephone connections for their homes so that they would access company computers and files from home after normal business hours. On the basis of Apex’s experience the author recommends that other companies follow Apex’s example and provide computers and access to company resources to their employees. The author believes that such a policy would increase productivity and profits for other companies, just as it did for Apex. The author’s line of reasoning is questionable for several reasons. First, the author assumes that Apex’s increase in productivity is due to its equipping its managers with home computers and access to company resources. However, the only evidence offered in support of this claim is the fact that Apex’s increase in productivity occurred after the home computers and after­ hours access was provided. Unfortunately, this evidence is insufficient to establish the causal claim in question. While temporal precedence is one of the conditions required to establish a causal relationship between two events, by itself it is not a sufficient condition. Consequently, it is possible that Apex’s increase in productivity is not related to its decision to equip its managers with computers and after­hours access in the fashion required by the author’s argument. Second, the author assumes that Apex and other companies are sufficiently similar to warrant a conclusion based on an analogy between them. Even if we accept the view that Apex’s increase in productivity was brought about by its policy of enabling its managers to work from home, differences between Apex and other companies could nullify this result. Lacking detailed information about Apex and the other companies in question it is difficult to assess the author’s conclusion. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to provide additional evidence for the claim that Apex’s decision to provide its managers with home computers and access to company resources was responsible for its increase in productivity. Furthermore, it would be necessary to show that Apex and other companies are sufficiently similar to justify the analogy between them. 102. The following appeared in a memorandum sent by a vice-president of the Nadir Company to the company’s human resources department. “Nadir does not need to adopt the costly ‘family-friendly’ programs that have been proposed, such as part-time work, work at home, and job-sharing. When these programs were made available at the Summit Company, the leader in its industry, only a small percentage of employees participated in them. Rather than adversely affecting our profitability by offering these programs, we should concentrate on offering extensive training that will enable employees to increase their productivity.” Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc. Nadir q Ł ; � ��� � ” @ I BE Ì € cª ’” h è ö ªÈ< c4·ª þ cþ A · ª o 2 Ì €y ª ’W ° Ðv ¯ ªA I ummit � � ��� � S ØE 0v .·ª A Nadir —I B E � 12 22 32 42 false analogy It is imprudent 2 to say the “family-friendly” programs are costly and not profitable. Likewise, it is also imprudent to say the “family-friendly” programs are counterproductive. either-or-choice In this memorandum the vice president of Nadir Company recommends against the adoption of “family­friendly” program. The author’s line of reasoning is that family­friendly programs such as part­time work , work­at­home and job­sharing need not be adopted because Nadir’s employees will not widely participate in them. The vice president’s recommendation is unconvincing for several reasons. In the first place, the fact that only a small percentage of Summit Company’s employees participated in these programs when they were offered is scant evidence that Nadir’s employees will do likewise. To warrant this inference the author must assume that Summit is representative of other companies such as Nadir. Unfortunately, the author has failed to provide evidence for this crucial assumption. For example, if Summit is an emerging high­tech company whose employees are young and unmarried whereas Nadir is an established low­tech company whose employees are middle­aged and married we can expect that the percentage of employees who desire to participate in family­friendly programs would be considerably different. Lacking specific information about the companies in question it is difficult to give much credence to the vice president’s position. In the second place, the vice president has failed to make a case for the contention that the adoption of family­friendly programs will adversely affect Nadir’s profitability. On the face of it none of the programs mentioned require capital outlay for new equipment or additional office space. Unless the vice president assumes that employees who participate in such programs are less productive than their full­time counterparts it is difficult to comprehend the line of reasoning that leads to this view. Finally, the vice president assumes that “family­friendly” programs will not increase Nadir’s productivity. Lacking evidence to the contrary, there is little motivation to accept this assumption as true. In fact, common sense suggests that part­time workers and job­sharers would be as productive as, or perhaps more productive than, full­time workers. In conclusion, the vice president’s recommendation against adopting family­friendly programs is not convincing. To strengthen the conclusion it must be shown that Summit is representative of other companies such as Nadir. Additionally, evidence would have to be provided for the assumption that employees who participate in family­friendly programs are less productive than other employees. 105. The following appeared in an editorial from a newspaper serving the town of Saluda. “The Saluda Consolidated High School offers over 200 different courses from which its students can choose. A much smaller private school down the street offers a basic curriculum of only 80 different courses, but it consistently sends a higher proportion of its graduating seniors on to college than Consolidated does. By eliminating at least half of the courses offered there and focusing on a basic curriculum, we could improve student performance at Consolidated and also save many tax dollars.” Saluda Saluda Ł ` ¶ “ * —IBE�� * ' B6 � � 200 � � � � � � yþ4 ·ªA � * ? B6 y þ4 ·ª A � � . 8 � ˆ 9o* 80 q Ł + Ì€y ª’ W I ` “ Á¶ ª A ÈL, ¶ 1. 2. qŁ+ Ł `¶“ ` “ ¶Á ª A ÈL, � equate——� � � � � � � ˆ 3. � ��� �� � 9o * *,* *?B 6 S 1. 2. 3. causal oversimplification false analogy It is likely that the smaller private school is incapable of offering more courses, or else its students can have better performance. In this editorial the author recommends that Saluda’s Consolidated High School eliminate half of its 200 courses and focus primarily on basic curriculum in order to improve student performance and save tax revenues. The author’s recommendation is problematic for several reasons. To begin with, the author assumes that the only relevant difference between Consolidated and the private school is the number of courses offered by each. However, other relevant differences between the schools might account for the difference in the proportion of their graduates who go on to college. For example, the private school’s students might be selected from a pool of gifted or exceptional students, or might have to meet rigorous admission standards whereas Consolidated’s students might be drawn from the community at large with little or no qualification for admission. Next, the author assumes that the proportion of students who go on to college is an overall measure of student performance. While this is a tempting assumption, its truth is by no means obvious. If student excellence is narrowly defined in terms of the student’s ability to gain access to college, this assumption is somewhat reasonable. However, given a broader conception of student excellence that takes into account student’s ability to learn and apply their knowledge to new situations, its is not obvious that college admission is reliable indicator of performance. For example, students in non­ academic disciplines could conceivably perform at high levels within these disciplines but nevertheless be unable to meet college admission standards. Finally, the author assumes that savings in tax revenues will result from the reduced costs of funding the paired­down curriculum. This is not necessarily true. For example, it could turn out that both programs serve the same number of students and require the same number of classrooms and teacher. In conclusion, the author has not made a convincing case for the recommendation to eliminate courses at Consolidated and focus on a basic curriculum. To strengthen the conclusion the author would have to provide evidence that Consolidated and the private school were sufficiently similar to warrant the analogy between them. Moreover, the relationship between student performance and college admission and the mechanism whereby savings in tax revenues would be accomplished would have to be clarified. 106. The following appeared as part of a business plan by the Capital Idea Investment firm. “Currently more and more books are becoming available in electronic form — either free of charge on the Internet or for a very low price per book on CD-ROM.* People who would not pay bookstore prices will now have access to whatever book they want from their home or work computers. Consequently, literary classics are likely to be read more widely than ever before: 72 percent of those responding to a recent online survey said they would read books in electronic form, and 81 percent said they believed that reading classic works was important. Given this newly developing market, we should invest in EClassics, a new company that sells electronic versions of literary classics.” *A CD-ROM is a small portable disc capable of storing relatively large amounts of data that can be read by a computer. ˜¹ v ¯V ª° Ð v ¯V ª° Ð w þ J·ª V wþ 4·V ª 0va · ª V 0va · ª V q Z Ì €wª ’ E Z Y = y ÿa ÿa " " n ÐZ l ·ªV ÐZ l ·ªV ð ( È ¶ª V ð (È ¶ ªV Àvè Àv 1. 2. 3. More accesses to cheaper books do not necessarily guarantee the desire to read classics. the survey is doubtful It is hard to make profit when there are so many E-books available on the net. In this article the author concludes that literary classics are likely to be read more widely than ever before. The author’s line of reasoning is that the availability of books in electronic form and access of books via the Internet has removed the two major impediments that prevented people from reading literary classics, namely price and convenient access. Since books can be accessed from home or work via computers at little or no cost, the author believes that significant changes in the society will occur. Specifically, the author maintains that access to literary classics will affect the public’s taste in reading and will result in a more learned and cultured reading audience. The author’s argument is unconvincing for several reasons. First, the author assumes that price and convenient access are the primary reasons people fail to read literary classics. While this is a tempting assumption, it is not obviously true. For example, other reasons, such as lack of interest in these books or awareness of them on the part of the reading public could equally account for the failure to read them. Consequently, it may turn out that, contrary to the author’s expectation, the number of people who read literary classics is unaffected by their increased availability and lower cost. Second, while it may be the case that access to books at affordable prices has increased as a result of new technology, the author provides no evidence for the assumption that access to literary classics at affordable prices has increased as well. On the face of it, this assumption seems innocuous; however there may be reasons that prevent literary classics from being marketed in the fashion described by the author. For example, the inability to secure the requisite permissions to reproduce these books in electronic form, or the lack of commercial interest in marketing them via the Internet could undermine the author’s assumption. In conclusion, this argument is not convincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to provide evidence for the assumption that price and accessibility are the main reasons people fail to read literary classics. Additionally, evidence would be required for the assumption that access to literary classics will be increased. 108. The following appeared as part of a business plan created by the management of the Take Heart Fitness Center. “After opening the new swimming pool early last summer, Take Heart saw a 12 percent increase in the use of the center by members. Therefore, in order to increase the number of our members and thus our revenues, which depend on membership fees, we should continue to add new recreational facilities in subsequent years: for example, a multipurpose game room, a tennis court, and a miniature golf course. Being the only center in the area offering this range of activities would give us a competitive advantage in the health and recreation market.” Take Heart �p Ł �pŁ +� � � � v ¯ª A +� � � � � � � � � �� � — q Ł +� � � � Z 0 v. ·ªA + � � B ‡ * ÿ. … ´ V ª * ,* Ð Z “· ª A A * ?B 6 ðLȶ ª A ] Àv TH � pŁ 12 � � � � �� � 7 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Ł G∙“ Ł G∙“ Ł G∙“ causal oversimplification a benefit-cost analysis should be given Whether the proposed recreational facilities are popular among the people of this area is unknown. Because Take Heart Fitness Center experienced a 12 percent increase in member usage as a result of opening a new swimming pool last summer, the author recommends the addition of new recreational facilities in subsequent years as a means of increasing membership in Take Heart. The author’s recommendation is problematic for several reasons. First, and foremost, the author assumes that an increase in member usage portends an increase in membership. This assumption may hold true in some cases. However, it is unlikely to hold true in the case at hand, because it is reasonable to expect that members would visit the fitness center to inspect and try out the new swimming pool. This would account for the increase in usage. However, since the author provides no evidence that this new rate of usage was sustained, the abrupt increase in usage provides little evidence that the addition of facilities such as the pool will attract new members. Second, the author assumes that the addition of the swimming pool was responsible for the increase in member usage. However, the only evidence for this claim is insufficient to establish the causal claim in question. While temporal precedence is one of the conditions required to establish a causal relationship between two events, by itself it is not a sufficient condition. Consequently, it is possible that the addition of the pool was unrelated to the increase in usage in the manner required by the author’s argument. Finally, the author has provided no evidence to support the contention that Take Heart will be the only center in the area to offer a wide range of activities to its members and thus have a competitive advantage in the fitness market. In conclusion, the author’s belief that adding additional recreational facilities will increase Take Heart’s membership is ill­founded. To strengthen the argument the author would have to provide evidence that member usage is reliable indicator of new membership. Additionally, it would be necessary to show that the cause of the increase in usage was the opening of the new pool. 110. The following appeared as part of a memorandum from the loan department of the Frostbite National Bank. “We should not approve the business loan application of the local group that wants to open a franchise outlet for the Kool Kone chain of ice cream parlors. Frostbite is known for its cold winters, and cold weather can mean slow ice cream sales. For example, even though Frostbite is a town of 10,000 people, it has only one ice cream spot — the Frigid Cow. Despite the lack of competition, the Frigid Cow’s net revenues fell by 10 percent last winter.” Frostbite �p Ł � +� � � �� � �� � � � x 10 � � p Frostbite � � Ł + 10000 � p Ł + � � � � V � � ’ Frostbite ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ F k ª ’ W V ’W Frigid Cow¤ ` ¶ “ * � � Frigid Cow � � � � � � � �x KK ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ F k ª ’ W 1. 2. 3. 1 2 Other factors in deciding whether to give loan to a company such as the credit of the company should be considered. Admittedly, the former and prospective performance of the company is also important when the bank have to make decision of whether or not should it give loan to a company. However, the author of the memorandum show no sufficient evidence to support his or her proposal that the bank should not give loan to Kool Kone chain of ice cream parlors. The statistics last year does not necessarily denote the future trend. p?B 6 F ’W ï'B6 &B6 à'B 6 = 'B6 * ?B6 y þ 4·ªA yþ 4 · ª In this memorandum the loan department of Frostbite National Bank recommends against approval of a business loan to a local group that wants to open an ice cream parlor. In support of this decision the loan department points out that Frostbite has a reputation for cold winters and sales of ice cream decrease in cold weather. This latter point is buttressed by the fact that Frostbite’s only ice cream parlor suffered a 10 percent decline in net revenues the previous winter. The loan department’s decision is questionable for the following reasons. To begin with, since it is reasonable to expect a decline in ice cream sales during winter months, it is difficult to assess the relevance of the fact that Frostbite has cold winters to the potential success of the Kool Kone franchise. Common sense suggests that this fact would be significant only if it turned out that Frostbite’s winter season lasted 9 or 10 months as it does in arctic regions. In that case slow sales could be expected for most of the year and the loan department’s opposition to the loan would be readily understandable. If, on the other hand, Frostbite’s winter season lasts only a few months and the remainder of the year is warm or hot, it is difficult to comprehend the loan department’s reasoning. Next, the loan department assumes that the Frigid Cow’s decline in net revenue last winter was a result of slow sales occasioned by cold weather. While this is a possible reason for the decline, it is not the only factor that could account for it. For example, other factors such as poor business practices or lack of inventory could be responsible for the Frigid Cow’s loss of revenue. The loan department’s failure to investigate or even consider these and other possible explanations for the Frigid Cow’s decline in revenue renders their decision highly suspect. In conclusion, the loan department’s decision is ill­founded. To better evaluate the decision, we would need to know more about the length and severity of Frostbite’s winter season. Moreover, evidence would have to be provided to support the assumption that the Frigid Cow’s loss of revenue last winter was a direct result of the cold weather. 112. The following appeared in a memo to the Saluda town council from the town’s business manager. “Research indicates that those who exercise regularly are hospitalized less than half as often as those who don’t exercise. By providing a well-equipped gym for Saluda’s municipal employees, we should be able to reduce the cost of our group health insurance coverage by approximately 50% and thereby achieve a balanced town budget.” Saluda �� � � � � qŁ + q *? B6 •‰ 7´ ªA È Ł . + • 9 aluda F � � � + So * ‰ 7 ´ & B6 ª A 50 *? B6 1. There is no causal relationship between the development of the employees' health and the provision of a well-equipped gym. 2. Therefore, the reduction of the cost of group health insurance coverage expected by the author is not guaranteed. 3. Even if the provision of the gym can cause a reduction of the cost, no one can rely on it to achieve a balanced town budget since the health incidents occur very randomly. In this memo Saluda’s business manager recommends that the town provide a gym for its employees as a means of balancing the town’s budget. The manager reasons that since studies show that people who exercise regularly are hospitalized less than half as often than those who don’t exercise, Saluda could save approximately 50% on the cost of its group health insurance coverage by providing its employees with a well­equipped gym. The savings on insurance would balance the town’s budget. The manager’s argument is unconvincing because it rests on several unsupported and dubious assumptions. First, the manager assumes that Saluda’s employees will exercise regularly if a well­equipped facility is provided for them. This assumption is questionable since the mere fact that a gym is made available for employee use is no guarantee that they will avail themselves of it at all, let alone on a regular basis. Second, the manager assumes that Saluda’s employees do not exercise regularly. Once again, the manager offers no support for this crucial assumption. Obviously, if all of Sauda’s employees already engage in daily exercise, the hospitalization rate will be unaffected by equipping an exercise facility and no savings will be realized on the group health insurance. Third, the manager assumes that there is a direct relation between the hospitalization rate for employees and the cost of their group health insurance such that a reduction in the hospitalization rate will result in a corresponding reduction in the cost of insurance. While this may turn out to be true, the manager has failed to offer any evidence for this claim. Finally, the manager assumes that the cost of building a well­equipped exercise facility will not negate the savings realized on the group health insurance. Until evidence has been provided to show that this is not the case, the manager’s plan is unacceptable. In conclusion, the business manager’s proposal to provide an exercise facility as a means of balancing Saluda’s budget is not convincing. To strengthen the argument, evidence would have to be provided for each of the assumptions listed in the previous analysis. 114. The following appeared in a memorandum from the director of research and development at Ready- to-Ware, a software engineering firm. “The package of benefits and incentives that Ready-to-Ware offers to professional staff is too costly. Our quarterly profits have declined since the package was introduced two years ago, at the time of our incorporation. Moreover, the package had little positive effect, as we have had only marginal success in recruiting and training high-quality professional staff. To become more profitable again, Ready-toWare should, therefore, offer the reduced benefits package that was in place two years ago and use the savings to fund our current research and development initiatives.” ˜ Ready­to­Ware RW N�� � � � � � ˛ ¨ < ¶ “ * � � Æ %k “ ��� � � � � � é› E E " p 5= “ ’E marginalq Ł ÿ 8= “ +�� � � ð8=“ V∙ “ V � � � � +�� � � V∙ “ V V∙ “ V È(g È(g ¶ `= 1/4 q8Ł + � � È RW qŁ 12 The causal relationship between the benefit package given to the professional staff and the decline of the profit is not guaranteed by the coincidence that the latter occured just after the latter. Other factors that may contribute to the decline in the profit should also be considered and ruled out. 22 Research and development is a time-consuming process. Two years is not a long enough period to see the result and positive effects. 32 Even if the package is really too high and caused the declne of profit, it is still imprudent to say that the reduced benefits package that was in place two years ago will definitely work. 1. 2. �p è°’ W F� a ’W &B6 9 o * *? * , * * ? B 6 3. In this memorandum the director of research and development of Ready­to­Ware recommends reducing the benefits package offered to employees as a means of increasing profits and funding current research and development initiatives. The director’s line of reasoning is that quarterly profits have declined because of the current benefits package and can be increased by reducing it. Moreover, the director argues that the benefits package had little effect in recruiting and training high­quality employees. The director’s argument is questionable for several reasons. To begin with, the director’s reasoning is a classic instance of “after this, therefore because of this” reasoning. The only evidence put forward to support the claim that the introduction of the benefits package is responsible for the decline in quarterly profits is that the profits declined after the package was introduced. However, this evidence is insufficient to establish the causal claim in question. Many other factors could bring about the same result. For example, the company may have failed to keep pace with competitors in introducing new products or may have failed to satisfy its customers by providing adequate support services. Until these and other possible factors are ruled out, it is premature to conclude that the introduction of the benefits package was the cause of the decline in profits. Next, the director assumes that the benefits package currently offered is responsible for the marginal success Ready­to­Ware has experienced in recruiting and training new high­quality professionals. However, no evidence is offered to support this allegation. Other reasons for Ready­to­Ware’s failure to attract high­quality professionals are not considered. For example, perhaps Ready­to­Ware is not a cutting edge company or is not regarded as a leader in its field. Until these and other possible explanations of the company’s marginal success at recruiting and training employees are examined and eliminated it is folly to conclude that the benefits package provided to the professional staff is responsible. In conclusion, the director has failed to provide convincing reasons for reducing the benefits package Ready­to­Ware currently offers its professional staff. To further support the recommendation the director would have to examine and eliminate other possible reasons for the decline in Ready­to­Ware’s quarterly profits and for its lack of success in attracting high­quality professionals. 119,120,123,124,125,A3,A1 119. The following is from an editorial that appeared in a River City newspaper. “The Clio Development Group wants to build a multilevel parking garage on Dock Street in River City, but the plan should not be approved. Most of the buildings on the block would then have to be demolished. Because these buildings were erected decades ago, they have historic significance and must therefore be preserved as economic assets in the effort to revitalize a restored riverfront area. Recall how Lakesburg has benefited from business increases in its historic downtown center. Moreover, there is plenty of vacant land for a parking lot elsewhere in River City.” 2 River Clio �� � � � <� � � � �p Ł �p Ł �� � � � ¨ <¶ “ A W *? B 6 áF k ª’ W . V 9 o* RIVER �p Ł ’ WOCK æF∙ “ D A W DOCK �pŁ W W � Ì€ y ª’ W p I Ł *' B 6 2 W y þ 4· ª A y þ4 · ª A ° Ðv ¯ ª A Ì €y ª ’ W 0 v iver � � � R . · ªA I ø ª Dock —I B E � 120. The following appeared in a corporate planning memorandum for a company that develops amusement parks. “Because travel from our country to foreign countries has increased dramatically in recent years, our next project should be a World Tour theme park with replicas of famous foreign buildings, rides that have international themes, and refreshment stands serving only foods from the country represented by the nearest ride. The best location would be near our capital city, which has large percentages of international residents and of children under the age of 16. Given the advantages of this site and the growing interest in foreign countries, the World Tour theme park should be as successful as our Space Travel theme park, where attendance has increased tenfold over the past decade.” ˜ I 2 ride @ @� A• ªA yþ4 ·ªA *?B 6 q è ° ’ W 2 9 ¾ ƒ Î é-’ W ð ñ V Ì € yª’ W ´ I p �p 6 10? B Ł ’W ª A 0 v.·ª A È L Z , … ° Ð v¯ª A 2 16 æ F ∙ ª A 1. 2. 3. 4. Increasing travel from the country the mentioned comany belongs to to foreign countries does not necessarily mean there is also a increasing interest in the amusment parks with a world tour theme. Therefore, the proposal that the amusement park should be bulit in the capital city is also groundless. Even if there is an increasing interest in the parks with a theme of world tour, it is not necessary to go to the extreme such us making the refreshment stands serve only foods from the country represented by the nearest ride. What is more, the company's plan is based on a false analogy that the World tour theme park should be as successful as the Space travel theme park. Increase in travelling abroad doesn't guarantee an increase in the interest to go the World Tour theme park. Gratuitous assumption: No reliable evidence can support the idea that the capital city is the best location for an amusement park. False analogy. 1. 2. 3. 123. The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a River City newspaper. “The Clio Development Group’s plan for a multilevel parking garage on Dock Street should be approved in order to strengthen the economy of the surrounding area. Although most of the buildings on the block would have to be demolished, they are among the oldest in the city and thus of little current economic value. Those who oppose the project should realize that historic preservation cannot be the only consideration: even Athens or Jerusalem will knock down old buildings to put up new ones that improve the local economy.” n River Clio � � � �� � � � ¤F∙“ °Ðv � Dock 9� � � � ¯ ªV � � Ì€wª ’ E 0 v a·ªV � y Z Y � ¨ n ÿa " Ð Z l· ª V m U °Ð v¯ªV 0 v a· ª V ]”·ª V À vè 1. 2. 3. No evidence is given to support the direct causal relationship between the buliding of mutilevel parking garage on Dock Streets with the development of the economy of the surrounding area. Admittedly, the historic preservation can not be the only consideration when decide whether to demolish the historic buildings or not. It is also reckless to ignore the historic preservation. A decision should be made after balancing all the factors. The fact cited by the writter of the letter that even Athens or Jerusalem will knock down old buildings to put up news one can not serve as a evidence to approve the demolishment of the old buildings on the Dock street. 124. The following appeared in a memorandum from the owner of Carlo’s Clothing to the staff. “Since Disc Depot, the music store on the next block, began a new radio advertising campaign last year, its business has grown dramatically, as evidenced by the large increase in foot traffic into the store. While the Disc Depot’s owners have apparently become wealthy enough to retire, profits at Carlo’s Clothing have remained stagnant for the past three years. In order to boost our sales and profits, we should therefore switch from newspaper advertising to frequent radio advertisements like those for Disc Depot.” Carlo's � �p Ł 1 2 3 +� � � � . ���¤ � � � � �� � � ¤ CARLO ���� � � pŁ ——� � � � p Ł B6 à'B6 3F�� � + � ��J B6 Carlo's ¤ F ∙ “ + � ='B 6 yþ4·ªA y Disc Depot � � þ4 ·ª A *?B DiscDepot ¤ F ∙ “* � � Disc DepotpK B E � �� � I ¤ F ∙ “* � � 12 The foot trafic into the store and the increase of owners' personal wealth can not indicate the business growth of the Disc Depot. 22 The author commits a fallacy of all things are equal. 32 The author commits a fallacy of false analogy. 42 Other factors other than the radio advertisement that may contribute to the business growth of Disc depot should be considered and ruled out. Likewise, it is possible that there are some other reasons can explain the stagnant profit of carlo's clothing. 125. The following appeared as part of the business plan of the Capital Idea investment firm. “Across town in the Park Hill district, the Thespian Theater, Pizzazz Pizza, and the Niblick Golf Club have all had business increases within the past two years. Capital Idea should therefore invest in the Roxy Playhouse, the Slice-o’-Pizza, and the Divot Golf Club, three new businesses in the Irongate district. As a condition, we should require them to participate in a special program: Any customer who patronizes two of the businesses will receive a substantial discount at the third. By motivating customers to patronize all three, we will thus contribute to the profitability of each and maximize our return.” Capital Idea � � � � � � � ² 9o* � Capital Idea � � � ƒÎé - ’ W Poxy � p? B 6 ParkHill � Slic o � � Thespian � � Pizzazz � � Niblick �� � � � � � � 2�� �� � � � � . Divot ‚S C ∙ “ * � 3 � � Irongate @ @ � �� � � @ K B E q Ł +� �— UC∙ ªA È L , ¶ 3�� ����� �@ KBE 1n The author commits a fallcy of false analogy. 2n Therefore the proposal of investment in the Irongate district is groundless. No investment should be made until other factors have been considered and the benefit-cost analysis has been made. 32 The programme suggested by the author is reckless or even ridiculous. The possible result can be the opposite of the author's imagination because the consumers have interest of only one or two of the three stores. 12 The business increases occured in the past two years. No one can guarantee the future profit. 22 The three new companies are not necessarily analogous to those profitable ones. 32 The condition that is required is absurd. There is no causal relatioship between the condition and the collective profit. A1. The following editorial appeared in the South Fork Gazette. “Last year, the city contracted with Flower Power to plant a variety of flowers in big decorative pots on Main Street and to water them each week. By midsummer many of the plants were wilted. This year the city should either contract for two waterings a week or save money by planting artificial flowers in the pots. According to Flower Power, the initial cost for artificial flowers would be twice as much as for real plants, but after two years, we would save money. Public reaction certainly supports this position: in a recent survey, over 1,200 Gazette readers said that the city wastes money and should find ways to reduce spending.” 12 p è ° ’ E 22 È ( g ¶ ª V á/ hª’ E R ’E 32 ØÚ 42 p è ° ’ E sample1 In this argument, the author indicates that it is cost­effective to replace real flowers by artificial flowers. To support his conclusion, the author points out that those real flowers need more water to survive in mid­summer. In addition, he reasons that even though the use of artificial flowers spends twice the amount of money of the maintenance of real flowers initially, people will be beneficial to this alternative in a long run. Moreover, a recent survey quoted is cited citizens’ dissatisfaction with the fiscal performance and their hope of reduction of public spending. As I analyze this argument in close concert, the author’s view is not very convincing for three major reasons. In the first place, the evidence the author provides is insufficient to support that the use of artificial flowers can reduce public spending, even in a long run. The author may emphasize the merit of artificial flowers that they never need water to survive or grow. But he fails to notice that over time, the outside artificial flowers inevitably become messy and dirty, weakening their decorative function. Then people also have to wash them with considerable amount of water. Furthermore, the sun fades the color of artificial flowers. Hence, the city need spend a supplementary cost to replace old ones. In the second place, the author distorts the readers’ ideas about ways to reduce public spending. Readers never specify that an end to the use of real flowers should be one way to reduce public expense. Readers may call for changes in other public work and services other than the replacement of real flowers. As far as I know, lots of people have inherent preferences for real flowers, due to their peculiar features. When real flowers are blossoming, fragrant smell spreads over a large area. Compared with artificial flowers, real flowers can change their appearance at all seasons. In the third place, the survey quoted by the author is worthless because some of its details have not been provided. Without additional information, such as the total number of people in the city or the framework of who were conducted, the result of the survey may lack representative. We can picture that the city has a population of more than 5 million, but this survey conducted only 1200 people, especially readers who are easily affected by the gazette's editorial. Since the author commits logical mistakes mentioned above and fails to consider the whole situation comprehensively, his ideas should not be adopted. The conclusion would be strengthened if he can obviate these three major logical msitakes. Sample2 In this argument, the author makes a conclusion that the city should plant artificial flowers instead of real flowers in big decorative pot on Main Street. The author's line of reasoning is established on his assumption that by planting plastic flowers, the city can save money. To support such an assumption, the author cites three supportive examples: last year, the city contracted with Flower Power to plant a variety of flowers and to water them each, yet by midsummer many of the plants were wilted; although the initial cost for plastic flowers is twice as much as real plants, the city can save money after two years; finally, public reaction will definitely support the proposal. At the first glance, the argument seems to be somewhat convincing. However, a close and deep reflection reveals how groundless and problematic it is. In the following paragraphs, I should elaborate the main flaws in the argument. In the first place, the author fails to explore the real underlying reasons for the death of the plants and flowers. Instead, he makes a gratuitous assumption that more frequent watering is needed. However, the author fails to substantiate his point. In no case can the mere fact that the flowers are wilted help to build up such an assumption flawlessly. It is possible that many of the plants were wilted because they required drier soils for survival and thriving. Unless the author can build up a causal correlation between the survival of the plants and more needed watering, the assumption remains questionable and open to discussion. In the second place, the author mentions that planting plastic flowers means the saving of money in the long run. However, the credibility of such an assertion has yet to be established, especially since the author ignores to point out that most of the plastic plants will last for more than two years. One obvious rebuttal to the author's reasoning is that investigations show that a majority of plastic plants, if planted on the Main Street, can only last for at most two years without the protection from direct sunshine. In such a case, the author's assertion that planting plastic plants will save money is of dubious validity. In the third place, the author believes that the public will certainly support his position, as over 1200 Gazette readers said that the city wastes money and should find ways to reduce spending. Yet, such a survey result is neither representative nor reliable. Actually, it is rather misleading, since the author lacks direct evidence to buoy his assumption that the viewpoint of the 1200 Gazette can largely reflects the opinion of the majority of the residents. Besides, even if most of the residents do favor for a reduced spending, they may not necessarily consider the author's suggestion a proper way of reduction in expenditure. Therefore, the author makes a hasty conclusion that the public will support his position for sure. To sum up, because it is plagued with the above-stated fallacies, the argument is flawed. To buttress his argument, the author should provide more direct evidence indicating that planting plastic plants will be more money-saving than planting real flowers. Moreover, the feasibility of planting and maintaining the plastic plants should also be taken into consideration. Additionally, a more related and reliable survey showing the real support for the author's recommendation will also cement the author's position. A3. The following appeared in a memorandum from the development director of the Largo Piano Company. “The Largo Piano Company has long been known for producing carefully handcrafted, expensive pianos used by leading concert pianists. During the past few years, however, our revenues have declined; meanwhile, the Allegro Musical Instrument Company introduced a line of inexpensive digital pianos and then saw its revenues increase. In order to increase Largo’s sales and in fact outsell Allegro, we should introduce a line of digital pianos in a variety of price ranges. Our digital pianos would be likely to find instant acceptance with customers, since they would be associated with the prestigious Largo name.” 12 The increase of revenue may just coincided with the sale of inexpensive digital pianos, while the two actually had no causal realationship. 22 The strategy used in other companys may not be suit for the Largo Piano. 32 The expected instant acceptance with customers may not be the case. As the fact the author cited, the revenue of the Largo Piano have declined during the past five years, it may no longer own the prestige. 12 pè°’W 22 2 32 È L , ¶ ª A 1 2 3 F AF A� ’W &6 B ’W —— F ª ’W ák &6 B LX *?B $ ’ W show ¸ ½ … ´ ª A *? ISSUE � 1. The primary responsibility of citizens is to obey their nation's civil and criminal laws. 2. Although most people wish to live long lives, attempting to significantly extend the average human life span would be a mistake. If achieved, this would place an enormous burden on resources, lowering the quality of life for everyone. 3. Lying should be avoided primarily because it harms people's ability to live togther in society. 4.Each generation's culture achievements­­such as those in music, art or literature­­represent improvements on the cultural achievements of previous generations. 5. Public figures should avoid expressing opinions about things that they have not personally experienced or been directly affected by. 6. The increasing popularity of video games and Internet suggests that consumers now want a more interactive entertainment experience than books, movies, and television can provide. 7. Only by traveling outside the country of one's birth can one understand the world and its people. 8. Because it is in the best interest of a society to promote integrity and moral behavior, governments should censor television and radio programs for offensive language and behavior. 9. Despite the violence and stereotypes present in many popular forms of entertainment created for children (such as books, movies, and video games), we should still allow children to experience this kind of entertainment. 10. Portrayals of violence have proven commericially successful in television programs, movies, songs, and other forms of popular entertainment. Therefore, those who create popular entertainment should continue to incorporate violence into their product ARGUMENT � 1.The following appeared in a memorandum from the head of a human resources department at a major automobile manufacturing company to the company's managers: “Studies have found that employees of not­for­profit organizations and charities are often more highly motivated than employees of for­profit corporations to perform well at work when their performance is not being monitored or evaluated. Interviews with employees of not­for­profit organizations suggest that the reason for their greater motivation is the belief that their work helps to improve society. Because they believe in the importance of their work, they have personal reasons to perform well, even when no financial reward is present. Thus, if our corporation began donating a significant portion of its profits to humanitarian causes, our employees’ motivation and productivity would increase substantially and our overall profits would increase as well.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 2. The following appeared in an editorial from a magazine produced by an organization dedicated to environmental protection: “In order to effectively reduce the amount of environmental damage that industrial manufacturing plants cause, those who manage the plants must be aware of the specific amount and types of damage caused by each of their various manufacturing processes. However, few corporations have enough financial incentive to monitor this information. In order to guarantee that corporations reduce the damage caused by their plants, the federal government should require every corporation to produce detailed annual reports on the environmental impact of their manufacturing process, and the government should impose stiff financial penalties for failure to produce these reports.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 3. The following appeared in a memorandum from the information technology department of a major advertising firm: “The more efficient a firm’s employees are, the more profitable that firm will be. Improvements in a firm’s information technology hardware and software are a proven way to increase the efficiency of employees who do the majority of their work on computers. Therefore, if our firm invests in the most powerful and advanced information technology available, employee productivity will be maximized. This strategy ensures that every dollar spent on enhanced information technology will help to increase our firm’s profit margins.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 4. The following appeared in a memorandum from the CEO of a consumer electronics manufacturing firm to the head of the company's human resources department, who is responsible for hiring new employees: “Eight years ago, our firm’s profits were increasing with each new employee we added. We discovered that each employee had the skills and motivation to generate more revenue for the firm than his or her salary cost us. However, for the past two years, our profit margin has been falling, even though we have continued to add employees. Thus, our newer employees are not generating enough revenue to justify their salaries. We must not be hiring new employees with the same level of skills and motivation as those we used to attract. Clearly, then, failures in the human resources department account for our falling profits.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 5. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper: “The tragic crash of a medical helicopter last week points up a situation that needs to be addressed. The medical helicopter industry supposedly has more stringent guidelines for training pilots and maintaining equipment than do most other airline industries, but these guidelines do not appear to be working: statistics reveal that the rate of medical­helicopter accidents is much higher than the rate of accidents for non­medical helicopters or commercial airliners.” Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc. 6. The following appeared in a letter from a part­owner of a small retail clothing chain to her business partner: “Commercial real estate prices have been rising steadily in the Sandida Heights neighborhood for several years, while the prices in the adjacent neighborhood of Palm Grove have remained the same. It seems obvious, then, that a retail space in Sandida Heights must now be much more expensive than a similar space in Palm Grove, which was not the case several years ago. So, it appears that retail spaces in Sandida Heights are now overpriced relative to those in Palm Grove. Therefore, it would be in our financial interest to purchase a retail space in Palm Grove rather than in Sandida Heights.” Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc. 7. The following appeared as part of an article in a daily newspaper: “The computerized onboard warning system that will be installed in commercial airliners will virtually solve the problem of midair plane collisions. One plane’s warning system can receive signals from another’s transponder—a radio set that signals a plane’s course—in order to determine the likelihood of a collision and recommend evasive action.” Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc. 8. The following appeared in a presentation by the chief production manager of a machine parts manufacturing company at a management meeting: “Our factory in Cookville is our most advanced and efficient. It is capable of producing ten drill bits for each dollar of production costs, whereas none of our other factories can produce more than seven drill bits per dollar of production costs. Therefore, we can reduce our overall drill bit production costs by devoting the Cookville factory entirely to drill bit production. Since reducing the production costs of individual machine parts is the only way to achieve our larger goal of reducing our overall production costs, dedicating the Cookville factory entirely to drill bit production and shifting all other machine part production to our other factories will help us to attain that larger goal.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 9.The following appeared in a memorandum to a team developing accounting software for SmartPro Software, Inc.: “Currently, more professional accountants use SmartPro accounting software than any other brand. However, in the market for personal accounting software for non­professionals to use in preparing their income tax returns, many of our competitors are outselling us. In surveys, our professional customers repeatedly say that they have chosen SmartPro Software because our most sophisticated software products include more advanced special features than competing brands. Therefore, the most effective way for us to increase sales of our personal accounting software for home users would clearly be to add the advanced special features that our professional software products currently offer.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 10. The following appeared in a memorandum from the marketing department of a children’s clothing manufacturer: “Our HuggyBunny brand is the bestselling brand of children’s clothing. Parents everywhere recognize the HuggyBunny logo as a mark of quality, and most of our customers show great brand loyalty. Sales reports have shown that parents are more likely to buy children’s clothes with the familiar HuggyBunny brand and logo than otherwise identical clothes without it. Therefore, if we use the HuggyBunny brand name and logo for the new line of clothing for teenagers that our company will soon be introducing, that clothing will sell better than it would if we labeled it with a new brand name and logo.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 11.The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a local newspaper: “Our city council’s neglect of the impoverished Railroad Flats neighborhood has left businesses with little incentive to locate there. Building a new professional football stadium in the neighborhood would solve this problem. Thousands of football fans would travel to the area to see games, and they would buy from local merchants, encouraging new businesses to open. So our city council should move quickly to fund the construction of a professional football stadium in Railroad Flats in order to help the neighborhood develop a thriving economy.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. 12.The following appeared in a research paper written for an introductory economics course: “For the past century, an increase in the number of residential building permits issued per month in a particular region has been a reliable indicator of coming improvements to that region’s economy. If the monthly number of residential building permits issued rises consistently for a few months, the local unemployment rate almost always falls and economic production increases. This well­established connection reveals an effective method by which a regional government can end a local economic downturn: relax regulations governing all construction so that many more building permits can be issued.” Discuss how well reasoned . . .etc. ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 05/05/2009 for the course ECAS asdfasdf taught by Professor Asdfaf during the Spring '09 term at Academy of Art University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online