Some study guide questions for Exam 2
Chapters 6, 7, 11 + parts of chapters 25, 27, 48
Chapters 6, 25, 27:
Understand Miller-Urey experiment. What were the results?
necessary for life, by creating primitive reducing atmosphere. (CHON)
What are the three domains of life?
Archaea, Eukarya, Bacteria
Compare and contrast bacteria, archaea and eukarya with respect to characteristics
discussed in class.
Plasma membrane- present in all. Nucleus- Present in
eukarya. Peptidoglycan-present in bacteria. Extremophiles- archaea. Membrane
sterols- eukarya and very few bacteria. Membrane lipids- bacteria & eukarya =
unbranched hCarbons, while Archaea has some unbranched. Nitrogen fixation-
bacteria and archaea. Methanogenesis-archaea.
What is the bacterial cell wall made up of? Is this present in Archaea and
What extracellular structures are present outside the cell wall in certain bacteria?
Endospores or capsules.
What are the functions of the following in bacteria: plasma membrane, gas
vacuole, endospore, inclusion bodies, cell wall, flagella, pili, nucleoid, ribosomes.
Plasma membrane- selective barrier, gas vacuole- buoyancy, endospore-
protection in harshness, inclusion bodies- storage or carbon/phosphate, cell wall-
structure and support/protection from lysis. Flagella- movement.Pili-attachment
and mating. Nucleoid- location of genes. Ribosomes- protein synthesis.
Do bacteria have membrane bound organelles? Are ribosomes present in bacteria
What are the energy sources in photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs? What is
their carbon source?
Photo- sunlight and inorganic compounds CO2, chemo-
inorganic compounds CO2
What are the energy and carbon sources in photoheterotrophs and
Photo- sunlight, organic compounds. Chemo- organic
10) What kinds of environments do extreme halophiles and thermophiles live in?
What are methanogens?
Halophiles=salty. Thermo- hot. Methanogens are
archaea that produce methane as a waste product.
11) What is unique about Archaeal lipids?
Branched ether bonds, no glycerol made
12) What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
13) What are the different types of light microscopes?
against light background. Darkfield- light on dark. Confocal- illuminates planes
in specimen. Phase contrast- increases contrast. Differential Interference- two
beams of light.
Fluorescence- uses black lights and object emits light in dark.