311C_S09_Study%20guide_exam%202 ANSWERED[1]

311C_S09_Study%20guide_exam%202 ANSWERED[1] - Some study...

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Some study guide questions for Exam 2 Chapters 6, 7, 11 + parts of chapters 25, 27, 48 Chapters 6, 25, 27: 1) Understand Miller-Urey experiment. What were the results? Created molecules necessary for life, by creating primitive reducing atmosphere. (CHON) 2) What are the three domains of life? Archaea, Eukarya, Bacteria 3) Compare and contrast bacteria, archaea and eukarya with respect to characteristics discussed in class. Plasma membrane- present in all. Nucleus- Present in eukarya. Peptidoglycan-present in bacteria. Extremophiles- archaea. Membrane sterols- eukarya and very few bacteria. Membrane lipids- bacteria & eukarya = unbranched hCarbons, while Archaea has some unbranched. Nitrogen fixation- bacteria and archaea. Methanogenesis-archaea. 4) What is the bacterial cell wall made up of? Is this present in Archaea and Eukaryotes? Peptidoglycan; no. 5) What extracellular structures are present outside the cell wall in certain bacteria? Endospores or capsules. 6) What are the functions of the following in bacteria: plasma membrane, gas vacuole, endospore, inclusion bodies, cell wall, flagella, pili, nucleoid, ribosomes. Plasma membrane- selective barrier, gas vacuole- buoyancy, endospore- protection in harshness, inclusion bodies- storage or carbon/phosphate, cell wall- structure and support/protection from lysis. Flagella- movement.Pili-attachment and mating. Nucleoid- location of genes. Ribosomes- protein synthesis. 7) Do bacteria have membrane bound organelles? Are ribosomes present in bacteria and archaea? No; yes. 8) What are the energy sources in photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs? What is their carbon source? Photo- sunlight and inorganic compounds CO2, chemo- inorganic compounds CO2 9) What are the energy and carbon sources in photoheterotrophs and chemoheterotrophs? Photo- sunlight, organic compounds. Chemo- organic compounds 10) What kinds of environments do extreme halophiles and thermophiles live in? What are methanogens? Halophiles=salty. Thermo- hot. Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a waste product. 11) What is unique about Archaeal lipids? Branched ether bonds, no glycerol made 12) What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? 13) What are the different types of light microscopes? Lightfield illuminations-dark against light background. Darkfield- light on dark. Confocal- illuminates planes in specimen. Phase contrast- increases contrast. Differential Interference- two beams of light. Fluorescence- uses black lights and object emits light in dark.
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2009 for the course NATURAL SC BIO311C taught by Professor Latham during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas-Tyler.

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311C_S09_Study%20guide_exam%202 ANSWERED[1] - Some study...

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