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MES 320 – DEAD SEA SCROLLS (LIEBOWITZ) EXAM 2 2-23-09 Septuagint a. Letter of Aristeas i. Associates 1. Ptoley Philadelphus (285-247BC) ii. Letter discusses Library of Alexandria needing the translations of the Pentateuch 1. They brought 6 scribes from the 12 tribes of Israel; there should be LXX(II)=72, but we say LXX iii. In Alexandria in Egypt, they wrote the Bible in Greek because it was acceptable, and not many people knew much Hebrew anymore, but they knew Greek iv. Written by a committee or individual who did the translation v. Included: Pentateuch, Prophets, Writings, and non-canonical books (books not in Hebrew canon) 1. Included Apocrypha a. Esdras, Judith, Tobid, additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, 3 and 4 Maccabees (but not 1 and 2) II. History of Development of the Septuagint a. Pentateuch translated in 3 rd cent BC (more accepted view that it was 2 nd cent BC) b. Prophets translated by different translators in the 2 nd century; Latter Prophets translated before the Former Prophets c. Writings translated: some latter part of 2 nd cent BC and others in 1 st cent BC III. Nature of the Septuagint a. Is the Septuagint a literal translation or is it a form of a commentary? i. Maybe: some ways it connects to other textual families and some of it serves as commentary b. The author sometimes used terms from Hellenistic Greek, giving Greeks an easier and understandable read (not always literal translations) c. Some of the Hebrew texts were of different families which created different translations accidentally d. Reflecting knowledge of Palestinian interpretational traditions IV. Discovering Septuagint translations at Qumran a. The Scrolls had examples of Septuagint in caves 4 and 7 in Qumran b. Nahal Hever: nearby site of Septuagint findings c. Cave 4: 2 separate translations of Septuagint of Leviticus i. 4Q119 on parchment ii. 4Q120 on papyrus iii. Numbers fragment 4Q121 iv. Deuteronomy fragment 4Q122 d. Cave 7: fragments of Exodus i. 7Q1 Exodus 7:28
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ii. Letter of the Epistle Jeremiah (not Jeremiah the book) e. Many fragments f. Both caves provided materials from the 1 st and 2 nd CE g. The following tell us who used which text for reading or translating copies i. Masoretic text has 70 ii. Acts text ends with 75 iii. Septuagint has 75 h. 6 different books of Jeremiah i. Deut 1:39 in Masoretic Text j. Earliest copies of Septuagint dated around 300CE k. Vanderkamp p 128-129 V. 2-25-09 Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha VI. Targum a. “translation”; opposed to the Septuagint (translation in Greek), targum was translated into Aramaic b. Targum arose from the mastery of Hebrew i. Targum was a literal translation and a commentary 1. Exodus 21:22 “when men fight and one of them pushes a pregnant woman and a miscarriage and no other misfortune ensues…” ii. Onkles 1. Translates “other misfortune” as “death” 2. Reflects rabbinic thoughts about Exodus 21:22 and makes it a commentary 3. The rabbinic stance on abortion is that it is not a homicide
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2009 for the course MES 320 taught by Professor Liebowitz during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas.

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