Race_and_Ethnicity_Chapter_9 - Race and Ethnicity Chapter 9...

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Unformatted text preview: Race and Ethnicity Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Coakley, 2007 “ Sports can bring kids together. It can “ also pull them apart by feeding the misconception that race predetermines what athletes can or cannot do. “ ­Michael Dobie, journalist (2000) Challenges Created by Racial and Ethnic Diversity and Ideas and beliefs about race and ethnicity influence self­perceptions & social relationships. Sports reflect this influence and are sites where people challenge or reproduce racial ideologies and existing patterns of racial and ethnic relations in society. • often take into account skin color & ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Defined Race Race: refers to a category of people regarded as naturally or biologically distinct from other populations because they share genetically transmitted traits; therefore; reference to physical traits Ethnicity: refers to the cultural heritage of a particular group of people; socially distinct based on traditions & history “…the characteristics we see with the “… naked eye that help us distinguish individuals from different continents are, in reality, skin deep. Whenever we look under the veneer, we find that the differences that seem so conspicuous to us are really trivial.” Caballi­Sforza, 1995. Racial Ideology Racial Racial Ideology: is an interrelated set of ideas that • when racial ideologies are put aside, definitions of race and racial classifications vary widely (height and skin color as continuous traits) people use to give meaning to skin color and to evaluate people in terms of racial classifications. Racial Ideology Racial • “one­drop rule” – this meant that a person with any black ancestry was classified as black and could not be considered white in legal terms even if he/she appeared to be white based on decisions that served to perpetuate slavery • this rule erases “mixed­race” people in U.S. history and sports and creates confusing social and identity issues i.e. Tiger Wood was identified as black – he said he was “Cablinasian” – a term invented to explain that he is Caucasian, Black, Indian, Asian It is widely believed that sports bring people together in ways that transcend racial and ethnic differences. But ethnic this is neither automatic nor customary. nor Small Groups Small None of us is born with racial ideology. We acquire it over time as we interact with others and learn to give meanings to physical characteristics such as skin color, eye shape, the color and texture of hair, or even specific bodily movements. • Examine if and when this occurred in your experiences while participating in sport? Give specific examples (such as age, situation, “what was said or done”) Racial Ideologies tend to support Racial Racism: attitudes, actions, and policies based on the belief that people in one racial category are inherently superior to people in one or more other categories. Stereotypes: generalizations used to define and judge all individuals in a particular racial category. • used most often by people who are not willing to learn about and interact with those who have different race­ related experiences. Small Groups Small Give examples of racism as it exists in the overall sports world today. Give examples of stereotypes as it relates to Native Americans. Sport Participation among Sport Native Americans Native Americans comprise dozens of diverse cultural groups Traditional Native American sports combine physical activities withritual and ceremony Native Americans often fear losing their culture when playing Euro­American sports Widely accepted racial and ethnic stereotypes about Native Americans have restricted their access to sport participation Identity Theft in Sports? Identity Using stereotypes of Native Americans as a basis for team names, logos, and mascots is a form of bigotry and identity theft, regardless of the intentions of those who do it Are there any conditions under which a group or Are organizations could use the cultural and religious images of others for their own purposes? What would happen if a school named their teams the What Olympians and used the Olympic logo (5-Rings) as their logo? their Honoring “OUR” Chief Illiniwek Honoring University of Illinois Honor Chief at the club The Chief car magnet The Chief carries our diapers The Chief covers our baby “Honoring” Chief Osceola Honoring” at Florida State University Wipe your face with his face Sit on his face Wipe your feet on his face Relax on his face Honoring of “OUR” chief Honoring Your cutting board chief Your Christmas chief Hang your chief Dry off with the chief towel When bigotry is institutionalized, it is very difficult to eliminate Why have stereotypes about Native Americans persisted in U.S. sports? Website Resources Website www.shipbrook.com/jeff/ChiefWahoo www.nativeculturelinks.com/mascots.html Using Native American team names creates offensive media coverage Policies Banning Practices Policies In 2003, the NCAA recommended that all universities using American Indian names, mascots, or logos review their practices and assess if they were consistent with their commitment to cultural diversity. In 2005, the NCAA banned the display of Native American names, logos, and mascots at all NCAA playoff games and championships and created a timeline for changing how they represented teams • made an exception for Florida State Small Groups Small Does race play a factor in sport participation? Does it play a factor in sport dominance? Provide specific examples. Managing Racial and Ethnic Diversity Diversity Because sport is global, teams recruit players from around the world…multiple races and ethnicity must learn to play together and get along. Look at racial issues in MLB: • Jackie Robinson was signed to the Brooklyn Dodger in 1946. This caused the MLB teams to change the rules (exclusion and segregation in the stadium). • Stacking: refers to position placement that fit patterns tied to racial ideology • Death threats were made against athletes who were about to break the records set by white athletes (Hank Aaron). Managing Racial and Ethnic Diversity Diversity Racial and ethnic issues are never settled permanently • NHL: coaches often have players from five or more national and cultural backgrounds; there could be negative racial and ethnic stereotypes as well as customs that other players may define as strange Translators are used Cultural diversity training is needed Coaches must learn new ways to communicate effectively Marketing departments must learn how to promote an ethnically diverse group Managing Racial and Ethnic Diversity Diversity Prospects for change… (p. 316) True change requires a societal change in its beliefs and ideologies regarding race and ethnicity. Sports bring people together…this is a good place to begin societal change. All participants (owners, managers, athletes, spectators) must confront and challenge racial issues. Accept diversity…not exclusion or segregation! ...
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