Chapter 4 - Carbon and the diversity of biological molecules

Chapter 4 - Carbon and the diversity of biological molecules

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Chapter 4 – Carbon and the diversity of biological molecules I. Valences for the major elements of organic molecules II. Carbon compounds (organic chemistry) a. Carbon has a valence of four b. Carbon forms four covalent bonds c. Bond angles form a tetrahedron d. A carbon atom can form a single or double bond with another atom III. A comparison of functional groups of female (estrone) and male (testosterone) sex hormones a. Only a small amount of changes but is totally different 1
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IV. Isomers - common molecular formulae, different structures and properties a. Structural – variation in covalent partners b. Geometric – different arrangements about double bonds i. Cis ii. Trans c. Enantiomers – variation in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon i. In biology Alanine is only in one form ii. Thalidomide (C 13 H 10 N 2 O 4 ) – drug, mixture of enantiomers 1. Used as a sedative for pregnant mothers (prevented nausea) ~ 1985 – late 1960 2. One form produced major birth effects (5,000 – 10,000 babies)
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Chapter 4 - Carbon and the diversity of biological molecules

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