backgroundwisdom - LANGUAGE AND HISTORY IN THE SOUTHWEST...

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LANGUAGE AND HISTORY IN THE SOUTHWEST PART I Western Apache Place Names and Language Conflict
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White Mountain
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Apaches: A Brief History The official statement of the White Mountain Apache Tribe: This land that is now the White Mountain Apache Reservation is the core of our homeland. We were placed here under the White Mountain by our Creator at the beginning. In this land our ancestors learned to be Ndee—The People— and we have learned from them. http://www.wmat.nsn.us/wmahistory.shtml
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Apaches: A Brief History Apache history according to linguists: Apacheans (Apaches and Navajos – “Southern” on map in next slide) speak languages that belong to the "Athabascan" family of languages. (A language family is a group of languages that are descended from a single common ancestor) Athabascan is part of a larger family, "Na-Dene“, that includes Eyak (the closest relative), Tlingit, and (maybe) Haida. Na-Dene shares a common ancestral language with the Yeneseic languages of Siberia. The geographical principle called "Center-of-gravity/Center of Maximum Diversity/ Least Moves" suggests that the Na-Dene homeland is probably on the Pacific coast in southern Alaska or northern British Columbia. Early Athabascans apparently moved into the Alaska-Yukon interior as glaciers retreated, reaching their homeland in the upper Yukon near the Alaska-Yukon Territory boundary by 2500 BP.
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Apaches: A Brief History Why are Athabascan peoples so widespread today? A catastrophist account: Volcanic eruptions in the St. Elias Range at 1800 and 1300 BP created the two lobes of the "White River Ash Fall.” The East Lobe, created by second eruption, created 250,000 km 2 of “ash desert”. While both eruptions would have impacted Athabascan groups, and date close to period when moves to west and south are dated, direct cause is unproven. Ives & Rice (2006) suggest that the first eruption precipitated the move of the Athabascans into British Columbia and south as far as northern California, while the second produced movements of the ancestors of Canadian Athabascans and Apacheans.
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Apaches: A Brief History Jack Ives Promontory Cave (Utah)moccasin in subarctic style
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Apaches: A Brief History 1) Tsuut’ina (Sarcee) remain in northern Plains. Apacheans are all descended from one founder group (they all have the same words for cactus, corn, buffalo, wild turkey) Apacheans are in Southwest by 700 years ago. At 1270 AD archaeologists identify them both on east shore of Great Salt Lake (Promontory Cave, date on moccasins, Ives 2009), and in the El Paso area (Seymour 2004).
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backgroundwisdom - LANGUAGE AND HISTORY IN THE SOUTHWEST...

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