language_ideology_and_puebloan_languages

language_ideology_and_puebloan_languages - Language...

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Language Ideology in the Pueblos and the Gal-Irvine Model
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Puebloan languages in the Southwest Hopi (Uto-Aztecan) Zuni (Isolate) Keresan (Eastern (Rio Grande), Western (Laguna, Acoma) Kiowa-Tanoan: Tiwa (Northern (Taos, Picuris) and Southern (Sandia, Isleta)), Tewa (Rio Grande Tewa and Arizona Tewa), Towa (Jemez, historic Pecos)
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Puebloan Communities
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Historical contexts for Puebloan Languages The Puebloan system that the Spanish encountered in 1536-1590 was “Pueblo IV”, dating from 1300 AD. This was a period of consolidation of the Pueblo world into a small number of very large communities in the west, a move off the Colorado Plateau (except for Hopi), and consolidation along the Rio Grande and major tributaries in the East. Between 80 and 120 pueblos were identified at the time of the Spanish entry. About 25 remain.
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Historical contexts for Puebloan Languages The Spanish brought large numbers of new people and resource- demanding large grazing animals, stretching a fragile ecology to its limits. They made heavy demands for labor and material tribute from the Pueblos. They seized from the Pueblos a large part of their land base, causing starvation and disease. Aggressive missionization by militant Franciscan priests threatened Puebloan systems of governance and social organization and challenged basic Puebloan moralities. Indigenous religious practice continued, but clandestinely. The Spanish were ineffective at defending the Pueblos from aggression by Utes, Comanches, and Apaches, who turned from trading with the Pueblos to raiding them in the new regime of extreme environmental stress.
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Historical contexts for Puebloan Languages The Pueblo Rebellion began August 10, 1680. Nearly every pueblo from Hopi to the Rio Grande and Pecos participated in a highly coordinated uprising. The Spanish were driven back to El Paso. Some Indians from Isleta and Piro, Southern Tiwa pueblos, retreated with the Spanish. A number of Puebloan peoples left the Upper Rio Grande after the Spanish reconquest in 1692. Many Towa-speaking (Jemez, Pecos) people went to live among the Navajos and Jicarilla Apaches. The Tewa-speaking Pueblos were among the last holdouts against the Spanish, and in 1696 the Tewa of the Galisteo Basin went first to Zuni and then to First Mesa, where they were permitted to settle by Hopi leaders at Walpi. The First Mesa Tewa village is called Hano (Kroskrity 1993)
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Puebloan language ideology In a famous paper*, Edward Dozier, a Tewa speaker from Santa Clara (and a faculty member in the University of Arizona Department of Anthropology), pointed out the resistance of Tewa speakers (compared to the Yaqui of Arizona) to adopting Spanish loan words. Dozier suggested that it was likely that this resistance dated to the period of oppression under Franciscan missionaries * Dozier, E. 1956 “Two examples of linguistic acculturation: The Yaqui of Sonora and the Tewa of New Mexico.” Language 32:146-57 Dozier is one of the first authors to have shown that the decision to
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language_ideology_and_puebloan_languages - Language...

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