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# notes2 - FEB. 19 RACE VS. CLINES max. breadth/max....

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FEB. 19 RACE VS. CLINES max. breadth/max. Lengthx100 head measurement 1962 Livingston wrote a paper called “on the non existence of human races” races are so arbitrary, must get rid of the idea of dividing humans into races Livingston came up with clines Clines- geographic character radiates Boyd said use gene frequencies for classifying Sample demes to make cline maps FEB. 24 HARDY-WEINBERG LAW deduction from mendilian genetics, based upon probability theory A. 3 Assumptions 1. random mating-theoretical opportunity of one sex to mate with anyone of the opposite sex 2. infinaetly larg e population 3. absence of the four forces of evolution what you get when none of the evolutionary forces are operating autosomes-non sex chromosomes, 22 pairs Def. - in a large random mating population in the absence of the four forces of evolution if p is the proportion of gene A1 and q is the proportion A2, then after one genereation of random mating the genotypes will attain and remain at the following frequencies A1, A1=p2, A1, A2=2pq, A2,A2=q these all equal 1 haploid- one set of chromosomes, 23 for humans, sperm and egg diploid- 46 chromosomes all other cells all answers are between 0 and 1, 1 the highest number C. GENE AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY 1. no or co dominance- no dominance involves quantitative, Co involves qualitative- you can tell the heterozygote from homozygotes FEB.26 know gametes, zygotes, gene frequencies, gene counting Pleiotropy- involves the multiple phenotypic effects caused by a specific gene POPULATION STRUCTURE Def- (context of genetics)-ensemble of factors which limit the validity of theories based on the assumptions of random mating and infinite population size Def- (Gen.)the relationship of gene and genotype frequencies within a population or set of sub populations where the distribution of genotypes is a reflection of the mating system how egg and sperm come together in mating systems-gamete union people tend to mate with same phenotypes- tall people w/ tall people, fat w/ fat 2. Positive assortative mating- situation in which people who are pheno-typically alike mate with each other more frequently than would be expected by change Preferential mating- mate with someone that has something you like, sexual selection Inbreeding- relatives mate with each other more frequently than would be expected by chance A. Random- occurs as a consiquence of small population size, have to marry a relative B. Non Random- prescription for who one should mate with, consolidation of power in

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## This note was uploaded on 05/06/2009 for the course ANTH 265 taught by Professor Gillett-netting during the Spring '07 term at Arizona.

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notes2 - FEB. 19 RACE VS. CLINES max. breadth/max....

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