notes3 - MAR.31 Chromosomes submetacentric- two arms of...

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MAR.31 Chromosomes submetacentric- two arms of chromosome are not equal length each side identical DNA molecule metacentric chromosomes have equal arm length acrocentric- chromosomes with extremely short arms Short arm is the P arm, the Q arm is the long arm telomere- made up of repetitive DNA, (TTAGGG) repeated over 1,000 time, tell a cell when to die Apoptosis- cell death program HSA human chromosome regions start numbering at centromere to telomere which is distal band numbers start at centromere, renumber for every region SRY region makes males, 17 different sex constitutions APR.1 A. Classification 1. Introductory principles and definitional framework Systematics- the scientific study of organism diversity Taxonomy- theoretical study of classification including its principles, basics, procedures and rules Classification- (process)- ordering of organisms into groups or sets on the basis of their similarities and relationships, (product)- resulting hierarchy, theory to explain biological diversity, classification change through time Nomenclature- application of distinct names to each of the groups recognized in any classification Taxon(Taxa)- groups of organism recognized as a formal unit at any level of a classification Taxonomic category- different levels of taxa, 20 different levels Identification- deductive procedures for finding where in a classification a new species belongs Rules of nomenclature, 2 latin names, under line*, species name made of genus name then a trivial name(Homo sapiens ) binominal nomenclature, Linnaeus created it uninominal- taxon above genus level Grades- level of functional organization Clades- all the descendants of a common ancestor including the common ancestor Monophyletic groups- all and only the descendants of a common ancestor not including the common ancestor Analogy-corespondents of features due to functional similarities, independent acquisitions by independent evolutionary lines, ex. Flight birds, flies/dolphins,shark fins Homology- similar features due to common ancestry, inheritance St. Hilaire said use clades with homology Sister group- taxa that share a most recent common ancestor Parallel evolution- the development of similar characteristics separately in two or more lines of common ancestry channeled by the common ancestry APR. 7 1950 Willi Hennig wrote foundations of the theory of phylogenetic systematics, caused a
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revolution in taxonomy, 1966 translated into English Points from book 1. operationalize Darwins definition of evolution(genealogical descent with modification) 2. Tries to recover genealogical relationships 3. produce classifications that reflect genealogical relationships 4. inferred branching patterns, to get sister group relationships 5. produce character phylogenies, what are the ancesteral and derived traits Shared derived homologous traits- synapomorphies
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notes3 - MAR.31 Chromosomes submetacentric- two arms of...

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