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classnotes - JAN 14 Classificatory-descriptive period...

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JAN. 14 Classificatory-descriptive period 1840-1914 Created the idea of stratigraphy Unilineal evolution- savage, barbarism, civilization all cultures classified in these groups Rise of geology, Darwin’s theory Historical particularism- Native Americans were an endangered species, could possibly die out Salvage Ethnology- record dying Native American tribes Direct Historic approach- linking ruins to tribal oral traditions Antiquities act of 1906-illeagel to excavate ruins on federal lands, need a permit Classificatory-Historic Period 1914-1940 Major concern is with chronology and writing culture history Used stratigraphy and seriation to define cultural regions based on material culture similarities Stratigraphic revolution began in Southwest (Nels C. Nelson) Kidder at Pecos Pueblo was the first to use large scale excavations 1924- 1 st synthesis of SW culture the Anasazi were organized into developmental sequence Pecos Classification 1927- first frame work Frank Midvale mapped and documented Hohokam villages and canal systems in the 1930-40 1931 Gila Pueblo Pecos Conference- created the Hohokam chronology, Pioneer-Colonial- Sedentary-Classic JAN. 16 Pg. 200 in book for good map. Periodization- (phase) set of artifacts, patterns, architecture that are similar over an area organize a group of types, trace by space then time Classificatory-historic period 1940-1960, concern is with context and function Artifacts are relics of social and cultural behavior Settlement pattern analysis Relation between culture and environment-culture ecology Concept that culture is adaptive Cultural Ecological frameworks: How culture is modified through interaction with its environment. These showed influence from geography-Julian Steward very influential Radio Carbon dating developed in early 1950’s –sun converts nitrogen 14 to carbon 14 an unstable atom. Decays in to carbon 12, it measures the rate of decay of carbon 14 and how much it originally would have had. Processual Archaeology 1960-1990 Cultural evolution(White, Steward) look for broad patterns: natural selection for culture evolutionary change, culture is adaptive. Concepts of ideology, technology and sociology systems Systemic view of culture- complex adaptive models( techno, socio, ideo) Deductive reasoning(positivist) use the scientific method, test hypothesis, ethnographic analogy attacked Middle range theory- linked archaeological record to general propositions about cultures that produced them. Longacre and Hill- ceramics equal social organization Post Processual Archaeology 1990-present, return to historical particularism more work at a smaller level Radical critique of processual Focus on individual sites, can’t learn broad patterns very biased Focus on variability and looked for local traditions Culture as a buffer and not a reflection of environment Reflexive- impossible for white male to understand Indian culture, other perspective are
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valuable when looking at the record Growth of symbolic archaeology- increased interest in belief system and ideology
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classnotes - JAN 14 Classificatory-descriptive period...

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