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276communities_iicofp

276communities_iicofp - Communities II Communities of...

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Communities II Communities of Practice
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Communities of Practice Problems with the idea of “speech community” led some scholars to seek other social units. The unit “Community of Practice” comes from scholars studying learning and education (especially, Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger), and also from the influence of “Practice Theory” in anthropology (especially, Pierre Bourdieu). Lave and Wenger (1991) emphasized that learning is not just a cognitive phenomenon, but requires incorporation into a community that orients toward knowledge in a particular way through a set of ways of doing things. Bourdieu (1978) emphasized that the social world is created in practical action shaped by cultural (habitus) and bodily (hexis) dispositions, and that this kind of action, not knowledge, should be the object of anthropological study.
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Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002)
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Etienne Wenger (???-)
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Penelope Eckert (??--)
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Communities of Practice What are communities of practice? Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first- time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm "An aggregate of people who come together around mutual engagement in an endeavor. Ways of doing things, ways of talking, beliefs, values, power relations – in short, practices – emerge in the course of this mutual endeavor." (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet 1992:464).
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Communities of Practice Criterial Characteristics of a CofP (Wenger 1992): 1. Mutual engagement, harmonious or conflictual 1. Members share a jointly negotiated enterprise that should be reasonably specific. 3. Members share a repertoire that results from internal negotiation.
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Communities of Practice Constitutive Features of a CofP (Wenger 1992): 1. Sustained mutual relationships 2. Shared ways of engaging in doing things together 3. Rapid flow of information and propagation of innovation
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