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History & Background

History & Background - HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL...

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Speculative Period , 1650-1840, theories about remains totally speculative. Nothing systematic. Classificatory -Descriptive Period , 1840-1914, Historical particularism (comparable to Boas) (Cordell – 1860-1920) Rise of Geology, Darwin’s Origin of Species, discovery of antiquity of humans in Europe - Unilineal evolution debate - mounds, cliff dwellings (savage, barbarism, civilization) - lost civilizations. In reaction to evolution, Boas developed what came to be called Historical particularism which s trongly influenced archaeology - Describe and classify architecture and monuments - US-sponsorship of salvage ethnology paralleled by salvage archaeology - Growth of Museums, begin to teach anthropology in universities - Smithsonian Insitution (1846), BAE (1879), Peabody Mus. Harvard (1866) - SW - 1st work by Army surveyors in 1840s-1860s Late 1870s sponsored expeditions: Hemenway, BAE, Gates-Hyde, Heye Begin problem-oriented excavations– Bandelier, Cushing, Cummings (UA), r Hewett (SAR, Lab of Anth), Fewkes, Hough, Victor & Cosmos Mindeleff, Powell, James and Matilda Stevenson, Alexander Stephen -Direct historic approach – attempts to link ruins to Hopi oral traditions - Passage of the Antiquities Act of 1906 (MV Park also created in 1906). HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL THEORY
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Classificatory-Historic Period , 1914-1940, concern is with chronology and writing culture history (Cordell 1920-1965) - Start with application of stratigraphy and seriation - - Used to define cultural regions or areas based on material culture similarities - Used ethnographic analogy, esp. Direct historic approach; - Funding mostly from East and West Coast museums and universities. - Stratigraphic revolution began in SW - Nels C. Nelson (student of Kroeber) - Kroeber noted pottery differences at Zuni and suggested could be seriated. - Leslie Spier (1917) applied the Nelson/Kroeber approaches by testing sites and comparing surface ceramics on other sites in the Zuni area. - Kidder at Pecos Pueblo - first to use large scale - Extended to regional strategy: reconnaissance, dating criteria, seriation, stratig. - 1924 – 1 st synthesis of SW culture (Anasazi) organized into developmental sequence. Pecos Classification (1927)-developmental, chronological - Frank Midvale documented Hohokam villages and canal systems in the Phoenix Valley in the 1930s and 1940s.
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Clark Wissler and A.E. Douglass; in 1929 linked the floating chronology of tree-rings (Nat Geo) - 1931 – Gila Pueblo Pecos Conference proposed the Hohokam chronological and developmental scheme (Pioneer, Colonial, Sedentary, Classic, Modern) - Mogollon also defined in 1931, but there is no agreed-upon sequence. -Culture classification: involves space and time. Archaeologists were writing culture histories! Periodization: organize type, trace by space, then time define Anasazi, Hohokam, Patayan (1957), Mogollon, Sinagua (1939, 1946). Extended into NW Mexico by Sauer and Brand (1931) who defined Trincheras, Di Peso (1960) who defined Casas Grandes.
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Classificatory-Historic Period, 1940-1960, concern is with context & function 1. Artifacts are relics of social and cultural behavior 2. Settlement pattern analysis 3. Relation between culture and environment - culture ecology
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