History & Background

History & Background - HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL...

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Speculative Period , 1650-1840, theories about remains totally speculative. Nothing systematic. Classificatory -Descriptive Period , 1840-1914, Historical particularism (comparable to Boas) (Cordell – 1860-1920) Rise of Geology, Darwin’s Origin of Species, discovery of antiquity of humans in Europe - Unilineal evolution debate - mounds, cliff dwellings (savage, barbarism, civilization) - lost civilizations. In reaction to evolution, Boas developed what came to be called Historical particularism which s trongly influenced archaeology - Describe and classify architecture and monuments - US-sponsorship of salvage ethnology paralleled by salvage archaeology - Growth of Museums, begin to teach anthropology in universities - Smithsonian Insitution (1846), BAE (1879), Peabody Mus. Harvard (1866) - SW - 1st work by Army surveyors in 1840s-1860s Late 1870s sponsored expeditions: Hemenway, BAE, Gates-Hyde, Heye Begin problem-oriented excavations– Bandelier, Cushing, Cummings (UA), r Hewett Mindeleff, Powell, James and Matilda Stevenson, Alexander Stephen -Direct historic approach – attempts to link ruins to Hopi oral traditions -Passage of the Antiquities Act of 1906 (MV Park also created in 1906). HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL THEORY
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Classificatory-Historic Period , 1914-1940, concern is with chronology and writing culture history (Cordell 1920-1965) - Start with application of stratigraphy and seriation - - Used to define cultural regions or areas based on material culture similarities - Used ethnographic analogy, esp. Direct historic approach; - Funding mostly from East and West Coast museums and universities. - Stratigraphic revolution began in SW - Nels C. Nelson (student of Kroeber) - Kroeber noted pottery differences at Zuni and suggested could be seriated. - Leslie Spier (1917) applied the Nelson/Kroeber approaches by testing sites and comparing surface ceramics on other sites in the Zuni area. - Kidder at Pecos Pueblo - first to use large scale - Extended to regional strategy: reconnaissance, dating criteria, seriation, stratig. - 1924 – 1 st synthesis of SW culture (Anasazi) organized into developmental sequence. Pecos Classification (1927)-developmental, chronological - Frank Midvale documented Hohokam villages and canal systems in the Phoenix Valley in the 1930s and 1940s.
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Clark Wissler and A.E. Douglass; in 1929 linked the floating chronology of tree-rings (Nat Geo) - 1931 – Gila Pueblo Pecos Conference proposed the Hohokam chronological and developmental scheme (Pioneer, Colonial, Sedentary, Classic, Modern) - Mogollon also defined in 1931, but there is no agreed-upon sequence. -Culture classification: involves space and time. Archaeologists were writing culture histories! Periodization: organize type, trace by space, then time
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2009 for the course ANTH 418 taught by Professor Adams/brescia during the Spring '09 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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History & Background - HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL...

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