Lecture-33 - Alcohol Alcohol evolution Alcohol use dates...

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Alcohol Alcohol & evolution?? Alcohol use dates back to prehistoric times & distillation was invented by the Arabs, from whom it spread to Europe in the Middle Ages. A standard drink contains about 13.6 g of alcohol: 1 beer (4-5% EtOH) = 5 oz glass of wine (12% EtOH) = 1.5 oz (43 ml) of 40% alcohol Ethanol is one of a group in a homologous series of alcohols.
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EtOH is rapidly absorbed through mucosal surfaces by diffusion. Diffusion occurs most rapidly in the small intestine, so delays in gastric emptying slow alcohol absorption. Concentrations of 20-30% are absorbed most quickly. After absorption, ethanol quickly partitions into total body water and its V d can be used to estimate total body water. The partition coefficient of alcohol between blood and air is 2200:1 . This is the basis of use of the breathalyzer . Correcting for differences in absorption rates, an individual’s BAC (blood alcohol content) still depends on factors such as body mass, body composition, sex & age.
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During the rising phase of blood alcohol concentrations, peripheral alcohol measurements can underestimate the brain concentration of ethanol.
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Metabolism of ethanol by ADH rate-limiting step
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Chronic ingestion of substantial amounts of alcohol leads to the induction of cyt. P450 enzymes (especially CYP2E1).
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