Lecture 08

Lecture 08 - pg • Forces that arise only when there is motion – Coriolis force – Friction Pressure Gradient Forces Pressure gradient forces

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Lecture 8: Atmospheric Pressure, Coriolis Force, and Air Motion A survey of forces acting on the atmosphere. These forces also act on the World’s oceans, as we will see later.
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Newton’s Laws Newton’s First Law of Motion: A body at rest stays at rest and a body in motion continues to move with constant velocity unless acted on by an external force. Newton’s Second Law of Motion: A force acting on a body (mass M) causes an acceleration (a) which is in the direction of the applied force and has a magnitude proportional to the applied force. F = Ma Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation: every particle (mass m 1 ) attracts every other particle (mass m 2 ) with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance, r, between them. F = G*m 1 *m 2 /r 2
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Types of forces at work in the atmosphere and oceans Forces that act regardless of motion: – gravitational force (F g ) – pressure gradient forces (F
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Unformatted text preview: pg ) • Forces that arise only when there is motion: – Coriolis force – Friction Pressure Gradient Forces Pressure gradient forces act perpendicular to isobars and are directed from high to low pressure. F pg Isobars are lines of equal pressure Hydrostatic Equilibrium • Hydrostatic equilibrium expresses the balance between gravitational force (F g ) and the vertical pressure gradient force (F pg ). • When force (heat) in (b) is added, hydrostatic equilibrium is changed. F g F pg Coriolis Force - I The Coriolis force is not a real force but it does describe a real effect. Air and water at the Earth’s surface generally rotate with the solid Earth, but no exactly so. The result is an apparent movement of the atmosphere and oceans relative to the solid Earth that we term the Coriolis Force. Coriolis Force - II Friction (at the bottom of the atmosphere) and its affects on wind...
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This note was uploaded on 05/08/2009 for the course GEOL 150Lxg taught by Professor Stott during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Lecture 08 - pg • Forces that arise only when there is motion – Coriolis force – Friction Pressure Gradient Forces Pressure gradient forces

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