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Unformatted text preview: IR 100 The Problems of Creating a New World Order: The Lessons of the Post World War II Reconstruction
Oct.1 and 3, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte Due dates - reminder Midterm: Monday Oct. 22 (disabled students, Midterm: check with TA) - remember to bring bluebook check Paper topic due: in your section, week of Oct. 29 Paper outline and bibliography due: in lecture, Paper Monday Nov. 19 - note change of location on updated syllabus (on Blackboard) updated Movie on Nov. 21: “9/11” (2002), Director James Movie Hanlon, filmed by the Naudet brothers Hanlon, Paper due: in lecture, Monday Dec. 3 Final Exam: Fri., Dec. 14, in this room (disabled Final students, check with TA) students, Outline
I The Challenge of the Unipolar Moment: The The US and Europe after the War The II Reviving the Enemy: Europe and Asia III Main question: How should the US III deploy power in a unipolar world? In a bipolar world? John Ikenberry (Blackboard reading for this week): Big Questions What is the essential logic of state choice in those What postwar moments when the basic organization of international order is up for grabs? international Why has the specific solution to the problem of Why order changed or evolved across the great postwar settlements? settlements? Why has the post 1945 order been so durable? Why Ikenberry’s Main Argument
Need to understand “strategic restraint” Two key variables: power disparities and the types of states involved Look at both how and when institutions matter Explains remarkable post1945 stability Roosevelt and Churchill meet in secret on a boat in the North Atlantic, 1941 Key Points in The Atlantic Charter
1. self-determination (countries and voters 1. could choose their own fates) could 2. open markets (unrestricted flow of commodities and capital) commodities 3. collective security 3. Divided Berlin George Kennan State Department Soviet expert and originator of the idea of containment Winston Churchill delivers the “Iron Curtain” speech, Westminster College, March 1946 The Truman Doctrine, delivered in a speech to a Joint Session of Congress, March 21, 1947 I believe that it must be the policy of the United believe States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work believe out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through believe economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes. George Kennan, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” 1947… Published in influential journal Foreign Affairs Published Foreign In his opinion, the Soviet Union, for reasons In related more to a long-standing Russian sense of strategic insecurity and need for a buffer than to the messianic goals of Marxist-Leninist ideology, should be expected to pursue its interests by probing the weak points near its borders with a view toward extending Soviet power. Kennan continued Kennan set forth what he believed to be the Kennan correct US response: a firm but patient policy of containing the expansion of Soviet power beyond the limits informally established at Yalta. the Later, there would be other strategies of Later, containment, but this was the original version. containment, Secretary of State George Marshall announces the Marshall Plan, June 1947 The Bretton Woods Conference, 1944 This conference: This created the International Monetary Fund, or IMF, created which consists of a pool of currencies contributed by member states, to be withdrawn in times of emergency. established the US dollar as the world's principal established trading currency, and made it freely convertible into gold; and… into …continued
fixed exchange rates, to help prevent stillweak economies in Europe from suffering weak under currencies with little value. in the summer of 1947, another important in economic institution was added: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, or GATT, to help reduce trade restrictions GATT, British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin calls for security cooperation as well North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) In April 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten In overseas countries met in Washington to sign the North Atlantic Treaty. The original signatories pledged, in Article V, that The each member of the alliance would regard an attack on any other member as an attack on itself. Original Signatories to NATO United States Canada Great Britain France Belgium, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg (often abbreviated as “Benelux”) Denmark Iceland Italy Norway Portugal Subsequent Cold War NATO Expansion
The alliance later expanded, taking Greece The and Turkey on board in 1952, extending itself to the territory of West extending Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982. and More expansion after the end of the Cold More War (to be discussed later in the semester) War The US in Europe after WWII Conclusion: “In victory, magnanimity” -- and Conclusion: international institutions international The United States in the years after the war The operated in Europe on the basis of two principles: First, establish stable economic conditions, by First, being generous toward the defeated (an expensive, very long term process) Second, lead through long-term power-sharing Second, and institution-building, rather than outright control Asia after WWII: Three Foreign Policy Puzzles
Puzzle 1, The USSR and China Puzzle 2, The US and China Puzzle 3, The US and the Korean Peninsula NSC-68: An apocalyptic vision “The design, therefore, calls for the The complete submersion or forcible destruction of the machinery of government and structure of society in the countries of the non-Soviet world and their replacement by an apparatus and structure subservient to and controlled from the Kremlin.” and Six key aspects of NSC-68 Apocalyptic character Kennan’s strategy of containment not sufficient Need for fusion, or thermonuclear (not just Need fission) weapons fission) Need to expand conventional forces in Europe Specifically, need ground troops back in Germany NATO should integrate armies Kim Il Sung Ikenberry’s Main Argument
Need to understand “strategic restraint” Two key variables: power disparities and the types of states involved Look at both how and when institutions matter Explains remarkable post1945 stability Ikenberry’s Utility
Applicable beyond Europe? Latin America? Asia? System capable of abuse (NSC-68)? IR 100 The Problems of Creating a New World Order: The Lessons of the Post World War II Reconstruction
Oct.1 and 3, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte ...
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- Fall '06