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Unformatted text preview: IR 100 Ending the Cold War Nov. 57, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte Information about Pop Quiz As stated in the syllabus, there are no make-up As pop quizzes pop Only one pop quiz grade will count If you miss both pop quizzes, you will receive an If F for that component of the grade for Only acceptable excuses for quiz: if non-medical, Only written notice advising your TA in advance of absence; if medical, documentation of illness delivered as soon as you are well enough. If you miss both with excused absences, your section with participation grade will count for 20% instead. Upcoming due dates Paper outline and bibliography due: in lecture, Paper Monday Nov. 19 - note change of location in Monday updated syllabus (on Blackboard) updated Paper due: in lecture, Monday Dec. 3 Final Exam: Fri., Dec. 14, THH301, 2-5pm (you Final must have submitted a hard-copy DSP letter to Prof. Sarotte for her signature to receive disability adjustments) adjustments) Outline
Ending the Cold War – what worked? From Ford to Carter to Reagan Shifts from Idealism to Realism and back again Is US foreign policy different from that of other countries? Is it moral? Readings
Merrill: Focus on Reagan readings Levine: Focus on end of Cold War Overy: Provides information on countries other than the US in this time period Video series: 22hour CNN “Cold War” series Henry Kissinger "The United States does not base its policy solely on Moscow's good intentions. We seek, regardless of Soviet intentions, to serve peace through a systematic resistance to pressure and conciliatory responses to moderate behavior… moderate …continued We must oppose aggressive actions, but we We must not seek confrontations lightly. We must maintain a strong national defense while recognizing that in the nuclear age the relationship between military strength and politically usable power is the most complex in all history.” complex International Panel on Fissile Materials 2007 Report, released late last month http://www.fissilematerials.org Almost two decades since the end of the Cold War, the Almost United States and Russia still retain stockpiles of about 10,000 nuclear weapons each and have committed only to reduce to about half that number by the end of 2012, when the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty comes into force. force. Decline of Détente
1. different understandings of détente in 1. DC and Moscow DC 2. elite v. public perceptions 2. 3. lack of domestic consensus 4. increased Congressional authority in 4. foreign policy Decline of Détente At the initiative of Senator Henry "Scoop" At Jackson of Washington, Congress attacked what it viewed as Kissinger's lack of interest in American ideals. From 1973-1975, Jackson continually pushed From Kissinger on the issue of human rights. He authored the Jackson-Vanik amendment He (stipulating that improved trade ties should be linked to improved performance on human rights issues). issues). Helsinki Final Act (CSCE) 1975
30 July and 1 August 1975: Signing of the Final Act of Conference on Signing Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (CSCE) This agreement declared the borders of This Europe to be inviolable. Europe The Soviet Union agreed on paper to The respect fundamental human rights. John Lewis Gaddis on Carter: "the four years of the Carter Administration were "the among the most significant in the history of American foreign policy in the 20th century. ... American [the] fundamental debate about how the US [the] should behave in international affairs was waged with unusual clarity... an effort was made to think in terms of a lasting world order beneficial to all people, rather than to make every decision on the basis of short-term calculation of American advantage over the Soviet Union." Key Reagan Officials
Alexander Haig became secretary of state. Alexander Caspar Weinberger became secretary of Caspar defense. One of the most active critics of arms One control, Eugene V. Rostow, became head of the leading arms control institution in the United States, ACDA. Reagan’s Defense Spending
Defense spending increased by 50% during Defense his first term. Between 1981 and 1986, the Pentagon's Between budget rose from $171b to $376b. The national debt doubled in the same time The span. US deficits reached $200 billion per year. US Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) On the evening of 23 March 1983, On President Reagan surprised not only the American public and the world, but also most of his own administration, in announcing the Strategic Defense Initiative aimed at protecting the United States by deploying defensive systems that would render nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete. …continued No prior studies had been done. No official No technological assessment supported this approach. No inter-agency process had taken place. The military had not been consulted. Congress was neither briefed nor canvassed. SDI in the 1980s, NMD in the 2000s
25 years later, still doesn’t work 25 Requires cooperation of other sovereign Requires nations; current issue in US-Russian relations In Cold War, Soviet Union did not believe In that it would be purely defensive. SDI and NMD continued USSR had a legal leg to stand on in this case, USSR because the ABM treaty forbid any "sea-based, air-based, space-based, or mobile land-based ABM systems” (although evidence of Soviet violations of arms control treaties as well) violations For this reason, current administration ended For ABM Treaty ABM SDI and NMD continued Operation Able Archer 83 The Soviets did the equivalent of what the US had The done in the Cuban crisis: they placed all of their forward bases on alert forward The Soviets apparently believed that a Western The attack on the Warsaw Pact would be disguised at first as an exercise first A KGB double agent, Oleg Gordievsky, passed on KGB news about Soviet anxiety to his contact in London, who forwarded it to American secret service officers and then to Reagan The four Gorbachev-Reagan summits Geneva, Nov. 1985 Introductory meeting Reykjavik, Oct. 1986 Discussed eliminating Discussed all nuclear weapons all Washington, Dec. Washington, 1987 1987 Signed IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Range (INF) Treaty (INF) Moscow, May 1988 No more “evil empire” IR 100 Ending the Cold War Nov. 57, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2009 for the course IR 100xg taught by Professor Siler during the Fall '06 term at USC.
- Fall '06