Unformatted text preview: IR 100 Theoretical vs. Historical Approaches to International Relations Wednesday, Sept. 5, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor = 9/11? Surprise attack On American soil US unprepared Significant loss of life Declarations of war Same features Same repeated repeated Pearl Harbor ≠ 9/11 Nation state behind Nation attack attack Military target Multipolar world News spread by radio Joined allies in war Terrorist cell behind Terrorist attack (non-state actor) attack Civilian and military Civilian targets targets Unipolar world Turned down allied Turned offers to help in war offers Components of a Theory Actors: individuals (people and individual states) Actors: and/or institutions and/or Incentives: money, power, prestige Actions: what can actors do to get what they Actions: want? want? Components of a Theory Constraints – int’l system, norms, resources, other Constraints actors actors Outcomes – Foreign policies: wars, sanctions, Outcomes strategies strategies What makes for a good theory? A) Coherence: can you explain it to others? A) B) Generalizability: How widely can you apply B) the theory? the C) Parsimony: How much information is needed? What makes for a good theory? D) Plausibility: do assumptions accord with D) reality? E) Testability: Can we confirm or disprove this? E) Must use observable data F) Accuracy: Does it actually explain what’s F) going on? going Realism: Key features
Exist in an unchanging world of anarchy Only actors are states Interested only in survival, security, and Interested sovereignty sovereignty All actions aimed at securing the above in All an anarchic world an Most important level: international Key Authors
Classical Realists: Thucydides?, Classical Machiavelli, Hobbes Machiavelli, Neo-Classical Realism: Hans Morgenthau Neorealism: Kenneth Waltz Liberalism: Key features
Even in world of anarchy, there can be Even change and cooperation change Primary actors are states, but there are other Primary actors as well actors Interested in own health and welfare - can Interested achieve many ways achieve Interested in institutions, treaties, Interested organizations organizations Key Authors
John Locke Jeremy Bentham Sociological Liberalism: Richard Cobden, Sociological revived by later authors revived Interdependence Liberalism: Stanley Interdependence Hoffmann, Joseph Nye, Andrew Moravcsik Hoffmann, Republican Liberalism: Kant and later Republican authors (Democratic Peace) authors Larry Diamond on the Democratic Peace Diamond, Larry. “Universal Democracy,” Policy Diamond, Review (No. 119, June/July 2003). Available onReview line at www.policyreview.org in archives. Can every country become a democracy? Answer: Can “There is no model of governance with any broad normative appeal or legitimacy in the world other than democracy.” than Diamond continued Diamond defines democracy as “a system of Diamond government in which the people choose their leaders at regular intervals through free, fair and competitive elections” competitive By this definition: mid-1970s: Greece and Spain 1979-85: military withdrew in favor of elected 1979-85: civilian government in 9 Latin American countries civilian Diamond continued 1986: Philippines 1987: martial law lifted in Taiwan 1989: Eastern Europe, Chile 1991: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal Summary: In 1974, there were 41 democracies Summary: among the existing 150 states. Today: about 3/5 of the world’s states are Today: democracies. Adam Przeworski From 1950 to 1990, no country with a per From capital income higher than $6055 in 1985 PPP dollars (which is $8773 in 2000 dollars) suffered a breakdown of democracy. democracy. Constructivism
Constructs that matter are the ones that we Constructs think matter (i.e. no objective significance other than that which we assign) other Actors: Constantly changing Constraints: Norms that govern society Actions: Words matter as much as force IR 100 Theoretical vs. Historical Approaches to International Relations Wednesday, Sept. 5, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte ...
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