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Sept 10-12 - IR 100 Founding Principles and Their Legacy...

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Unformatted text preview: IR 100 Founding Principles and Their Legacy for Foreign Policy Today: The Interaction between Domestic and Foreign Factors Sept. 10 and 12, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte Outline Theories that address domestic as well as Theories foreign factors foreign Detailed analysis of American domestic Detailed factors: The founding of the US factors: Competing assessments of the legacy for Competing today today Alternative approaches Focus on public opinion International Political Economy (IPE) International Society, closest to historical International approaches approaches Three ways of looking at public opinion A) Interest groups B) Public opinion C) Domestic institutions Interest Groups A group of individuals or organizations that share a common objective and take actions to influence the policy process to favor that outcome. Examples: trade-based, defense-related, Examples: ethnic groups, single-issue groups, even government agencies in some cases government International Political Economy (IPE) Main strands: Main Mercantilism Economic Liberalism Marxism Major current scholars: Robert Gilpin, see Major also Joseph Nye also Mercantilism Key tenets: Key a) Economics are subordinate to politics, part of a) international competition. b) National security takes precedence. b) c) Need strong state to ensure smooth running of c) international trade. d) Use protectionist policies to protect domestic d) groups. groups. Liberalism, Marxism… Challenges to Mercantilism Challenges Economic Liberalism, dominated by Adam Economic Smith, author of the Wealth of Nations, Wealth 1776. 1776. Father of economic liberalism. Father Adam Smith Markets expand Markets spontaneously for the satisfaction of human needs, provided governments do not interfere “Laissez-faire” Laissez-faire” economics Keynesianism John Maynard Keynes, John Cambridge economist Cambridge Updated economic Updated liberalism Argued for a market Argued “wisely managed” by the state the Marxism Karl Marx, Das Kapital, Karl (Capital), 1867 (Capital), Key Tenet: Most Key important factor is the economic class struggle, which is constant across all nations nations International Society (English School) Reject notion that IR theory is a science Reject Disagree fundamentally with realists that there is a Disagree structure of international relations that operates with law-like regularity, from which a scientific theory and predictions can be derived. theory Rather, seek to base understanding on philosophy, Rather, history and law. Key writers: Hedley Bull, Martin Wight, even to Key a certain extent Henry Kissinger. Understanding the Founding of the US and the Legacy for Today Founding the US: Three Phases Phase of Revolt, ends with Declaration of Phase Independence, July 1776 (destructive) Independence, Phase of the States, ends with Phase Constitutional Convention, summer 1787 (constructive) (constructive) Phase of the Nation, ratifying and Phase implementing the Constitution after 1787 implementing Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775 General George Washington Reading the Declaration of Independence to the public, 1776 First written First declaration of independence independence Blackboard reading 3, Blackboard from David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence: A Global History (2007) Global Surrender of General Cornwallis at Yorktown (now in Virginia) October 1781 Key Aspects in First Phase Representation and consent Constitution and rights Sovereignty Transition to second phase, or the phase of Transition the states the Outline for Wed., Sept. 12 From the phase of the states to the phase of From the nation the The Constitutional Convention and the The ratification fight What did the Constitution establish? Interpretation: What is its legacy for US Interpretation: foreign policy today? foreign Key goals of second phase Setting up state governments Seeing constitution as a written document Seeing written Reducing authority of elected governors to a Reducing fraction of those of royal governors fraction Emphasizing separation of powers Creating equal electoral districts and requiring Creating annual elections annual Balancing lower house with upper house, or senate Balancing (old Roman term) of wisest members of society (old James Madison The Constitutional Convention of 1787 Can argue that it acted illegitimately by Can rules of the day rules Initial call for constitutional convention was Initial to revise the Articles, not do away with them them Sessions conducted in utter secrecy Constitutional Convention, con’d Procedure for ratifying was cleverly Procedure devised; outside existing legal boundaries Machinery for “consent” was not a popular Machinery referendum, or referendum of state legislatures legislatures Characteristics of the Convention 55 delegates from 12 states – RI refused to attend Well-educated white male elite, average age 42 Most influential: Gouverneur Morris and James Most Wilson of Pennsylvania, Edmund Randolph, George Mason, and James Madison of Virginia. George Key questions at the convention How to balance between large and small How states? states? How to balance between different branches How of government? of How to change the Constitution? How to balance between national and state How authority? authority? One person = one vote? Electoral votes in 2004 presidential election: Wyoming’s 3 electoral votes = 1 per 151,000 Wyoming’s residents residents California’s 54 electoral votes = 1 per 550,000 residents residents Roughly, a California resident is only = 1/4 of a Roughly, Wyoming resident Wyoming Votes of Delegates at State Ratifying Conventions (1) Delaware Pennsylvania New Jersey Georgia Connecticut Massachusetts Maryland South Carolina 7 Dec. 1787 11 Dec. 1787 18 Dec. 1787 2 Jan. 1788 9 Jan. 1788 6 Feb. 1788 26 Apr. 1788 23 May 1788 30 46 38 26 128 187 63 149 0 23 0 0 40 168 11 73 …continued (9) NH 21 June 1788 Virginia 25 June 1788 NY 26 July 1788 NC 21 Nov. 1789 RI 29 May 1790 57 89 30 194 34 47 79 27 77 32 Key institutions established by the Constitution The “first branch,” Congress (House and The Senate) Senate) The Executive The Judiciary (many of its powers asserted The later rather than stated in Constitution) later Was the Constitution constructive or destructive? Destructive: Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation Charles of the Constitution, first published 1913 of William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy William of American Diplomacy, first published of 1959 (assigned reading) 1959 Thomas McCormick, 2007 Constructive Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of Bernard the American Revolution, first published the 1967 1967 John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know, 1997, John We and reading in Merrill and Balancing between the two views Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Paul Great Powers, 1987 Great Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War, Odd The 2005 2005 Westad (Blackboard reading 6) Americans understand liberty and property as Americans being inseparable being Existence of European empires (or even Indian Existence populations) on American soil intolerable because inconsistent with American liberty inconsistent Process of defeating European empires began to Process expand beyond continental borders expand Securing commerce in a dangerous world and Securing imposing American standards of behavior become two sides of the same coin two Westad and Kennedy Problem: results in a difficult balancing act If there is one big lesson of the Cold War, it If is that unilateral military intervention does not work to anyone's advantage, while open borders, cultural interaction, and fair economic exchange benefit all. economic ...
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