Test-4 notes - Test-4 Notes K Nourishing the newborn 1 Lactation occurs in the mammary glands in the breast 2 Milk is produced by removing calcium

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Test-4 Notes K. Nourishing the newborn 1. Lactation occurs in the mammary glands in the breast. 2. Milk is produced by removing calcium, sugar, vitamins, and water from the blood. (milk we drink is cows blood w/o red blood cells. 3. Prolactin- synthesis of enzymes required for milk production. 4. Oxytocin- released when a newborn suckles, triggers contractions that force milk into the milk ducts. 5. Colustrum – produced in first three days, clear – yellow fluid – contains antibodies. X. Nervous System A. Neurons 1. Functional Zones (take info to and from the neuron) a. Dendrites- extensions where the neuron receives info. b. Axon – extensions that carry signals away 2. A reversal in charge across a neuron’s plasma membrane is called an action potential and is how neurons accept and pass on signals. (signals take fractions of a second to pass through) 3. A chemical synapse (synaptic cleft) is a narrow cleft between the output zone of a neuron and the input zone of an adjacent cell. 4. Neurotransmitters – signaling molecules that diffuse across synaptic clefts. 5. Sensory neurons detect stimuli, motor neurons react to that stimuli. 6. Nerves – long axons of sensory or motor neurons that permit long distance communication between the brain or spinal cord and the rest of the body. B. Reflex arcs 1. Reflexes – automatic movements made in response to stimuli. 2. Sensory neurons synapse directly with motor neurons or are connected to motor neurons by interneurons in the spinal cord.
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C. Divisions of the nervous system 1. Central Nervous System – spinal cord and brain 2. Peripheral nervous system – nerves which thread through the rest of the body. a. somatic nerves control movement of the head, trunk, and limbs b. autonomic nerves- control smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. D. The spinal cords 1. Expressway for signals between the peripheral nervous system and the brain. 2. Sensory and motor neurons make direct reflex connections in the spinal cord. 3. Spinal cord threads through the vertebral column. F. Sense of Vision 1. Cornea – clear covering of the eye 2. Iris- muscle that regulates the amount of light that passes into the eye- colored part. (ppl who have really light iris’s their eyes change with color of clothing they’re wearing) 3. pupil- entrance for light 4. retina- a thin layer in the back of the eye. Contains two types of photoreceptors – cones and rods. 5. Cones – color and detailed vision – clumped in a central area called the fovea centralis. (better in day light) 6. rods- scattered throughout the retina. (used for night vision. More rods= better night vision.) 7. lens- focuses the incoming images onto photoreceptors. Changes with focus.
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2009 for the course BIOL 2010 taught by Professor Mattkearley during the Spring '09 term at Auburn University.

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Test-4 notes - Test-4 Notes K Nourishing the newborn 1 Lactation occurs in the mammary glands in the breast 2 Milk is produced by removing calcium

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