test-2 notes - TEST #2 K. Large intestine 1. Undigestible...

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TEST #2 K. Large intestine 1. Undigestible residue passes through the ileocecal valve and into the larg intestine(colon) 2. The large intestine concentrates and stores feces: mixture of water, undigested material, and bacteria. 3. Much of the water is absorbed into blood vessels. 4. Not enough water absorbed – diarrhea. Too much – constipation. 5. Foods high in fiber=increase peristalsis. 6. The cecum – pouchlike end of large intestine.-appendix(no digestive function) 7. Ascending colon rises along the right side of the abdominal cavity. 8. Transverse colon- crosses abdominal cavity. 9. Descending colon – down left side of cavity. 10. Sigmoid colon- S shaped 11. Rectum 12. Anus 13. Colon Cancer L. Liver 1. Liver has hundreds of functions. 2. Carbohydrate metabolism – changes glucose into glycogen, breaks glycogen down into glucose. 3. Storage- stores glycogen, iron, and vitamins. 4. Secretes bile(breaks lipids into small drops of lipids) 5. Detoxification – removes toxins from the blood.(alcohol, rat poison, etc) 6. Cirrhosis of the liver.--scar tissue on the liver, liver loses ability to process toxins. V. Circulatory System. A. Function – rapid internal transport to and from cells. 1. Interstitial fluid bathes cells. Cells get things from fluid and cells drop products into this fluid which will be carried away by the bloodstream. 2. Blood interacts with interstitial fluid. B. Blood 1. Transports oxygen, nutrients, wastes, CO2, and other solutes to and away from cells. 2. carries away metabolic wastes. (urea, CO2) 3. maintains internal PH (7.3-7.5) 4. Highway for phagoycytic cells.(attack fungus/virus/foreign entities(tapeworm)) 5. Equalizes body temp. 6. Plasma (~55% of blood) -females usually have lower % than males do a. contains proteins (albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen) b. nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc.) c. respiratory gases – oxygen and CO2 d. hormones. e. wastes 7. Blood cells
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a. erythrocytes (red blood cells) 1. contain hemoglobin (iron based protein) --carry oxygen and CO2 2. no nucleus 3. produced in bone marrow. b. leukocytes (white blood cells) 1. Larger, but less numerous than RBC 2. have nucleus 3. 5 kinds of WBC: a. neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils -lobed nucleus, produced by red bone marrow. b. monocytes, lymphocytes -round or kidney shaped nucleus. produced in red bone marrow *lymphocytes can also be produced by lymph nodes 8. Types of blood, agglutinogens, and agglutination. a. 4 types of blood: A, AB, B, and O b. types are identified according to the types of agglutinogens (antigens) in the blood. c. when antigens contact agglutins(andtibodies) the result is a clumping of
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test-2 notes - TEST #2 K. Large intestine 1. Undigestible...

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