test-1 notes - I Introduction A Humans are structurally...

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I. Introduction A. Humans are structurally adapted to: 1. Maintain homeostasis 2. Locate and acquire nutrients and dispose of wastes 3. Protect against injury from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. B. Levels of Organization 1. Tissue – aggregation of cells – specialized activity 2. Tissues combine to form organs 3. Organs form Organ systems II. Epithelial tissue (epithelium) A. General char. = one surface is free, other surface adheres to a noncellular basement membrane. 1. Simple epithelium= single layer of cells, lines body cavities and tubes. (ex: air sacs in lungs and blood vessel walls) 2. Stratified epithelium – more than one layer of cells: ex: skin B. Glands – multicelled secretory structures. 1. Exocrine glands – secrete through ducts to free surfaces. .. Secrete wax, milk, saliva, sweat, mucus, etc. .. 2. Endocrine glands – secrete hormones into fluid bathing the gland. Hormones enter the bloodstream. III. Connective Tissue A. Soft Connective tissues 1. Support framework for epithelium. .. Forms protective capsules around organs. -present in tendons and ligaments -tendons = connect muscles to bones -ligaments= connect bones to bone B. Specialized connective tissue 1. Cartilage – pliable yet solid, resists compression a. cushions and maintains the shape of body parts b. found in parts of the ear, in between vertebrae, and at the end of bones. c. cartilage has no blood supply of its own 2. Bone tissue – rich in calcium a. supports and protects body tissues and organs b. produces blood cells c. work w/ muscles to produce movement 3. Adipose tissue – storage of fat – energy reserve 4. Blood a. transports oxygen, wastes, hormones, nutrients b. protect against disease causing agent IV. Muscle tissue 3 Kinds of muscle: 1. Skeletal muscle tissue- attaches to bones for voluntary muscle movement. Long, striated cells, multinucleated. 2. Smooth muscle tissue – lines the gut, blood vessels, etc. .. Operation is involuntary - single nucleus
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3. Cardiac Muscle tissue – short striated cells found in the heart. -intercalated disks (allows impulse to travel through heart faster) -single nucleus V. Nervous Tissue A. Controls the body's responsiveness to changing conditions. Neurons- excitable cells: organized as lines of communication throughout the body Systems in Detail I. Integument – protective outer covering of the body A. Functions of the integument: 1. Protection from abrasion, bacterial attack, ultraviolet radiation, and dehydration 2. Helps control internal temperature 3. Sensory receptors detect environmental stimuli B. Structures of skin 1. Epidermis a. formed by several layers of cells b. stratum basale- innermost layer of the epidermis (mitotic). Contains melanocytes which darkens the skin and protect against UV rays. c.
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2009 for the course BIOL 2010 taught by Professor Mattkearley during the Spring '09 term at Auburn University.

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test-1 notes - I Introduction A Humans are structurally...

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