POL 103 Notes for midterm

POL 103 Notes for midterm - POL 103 Notes: I. States and...

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POL 103 Notes: I. States and Nations: a. State-territory that exercises sovereignty over itself. Ultimately responsible for its politics. Governs itself. i. Organizations that have a comparative advantage in violence (use of violence or threat of violence to govern) ii. Population. b. State- a state is an organization with a comparative advantage in violence over some population or territory. i. Given Territory. c. States have military forces, police forces; violence is an advantage not a monopoly! i. Legitimate use of violence –when public is okay with violence. ii. This idea of violence is subjective and is always changing d. States can use violence, they are better at it then the population at large. i. States are known as states through ‘legal definitions.’ i.e. Israel, Palestine, and Taiwan et al. ii. There are political reasons why the imperial definition of a state does not mean it is actually a state. i.e. Iraq is a state. When we think of these definitions of states, these definitions are not always considered ‘stately’ by the U.N. II. What is a Nation? a. Nation- Group of people in a population that has some sort of collective identity, ethnicity, language, culture, etc. Native Americans for example. Africa as well. i. There can be more than one nation (culture) in a state. Nations are constructed ideas. They come and go. ii. Nations are more of an idea. b. Nation States- most of the nation population live in one state. Most countries are nation states. Before states there were empires. III. Empires: a. Feudal Systems- i. There were no clear distinctions of loyalties. They could be split between king and another landlord. b. European Union- Institution that i. Governs multiple states ii. Owns money iii. Merges military iv. (A set of policies and strategies that govern set of states) IV.How do states come about? a. Theory: States are a solution to prisoner’s dilemma. i. Protection: families/kin offer protection, but it is low, limited, and only capable of protecting yourself.
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ii. There is no law to protect your property, so you make a living for yourself and nothing more than being self sufficient. iii. Investment is low, because recoup of money invested is low. No returns on your investments. iv. An equal spread of security offers motivation to invest, educate, thus leading to returns on investments. b. Contract Theory- i. When people start to cooperate, the must first give up certain rights for the sake of the overall good of the state. The people give up some rights to a government in order to receive social order. Social contract theory provides the rationale behind the historically important notion that legitimate state authority must be derived from the consent of the governed. ii. The notion that both parties will steal from each other, leads to the
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POL 103 Notes for midterm - POL 103 Notes: I. States and...

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