Psych 314 Lecture Notes - March 11th

Psych 314 Lecture Notes - March 11th - Psych 314 Lecture...

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Psych 314 Lecture Notes March 11 th , 2009 Paper: - references do not need to be included in the 8-page limit - APA style for references Guest Lecturer – Kenneth D. Craig Psychosocial Perspectives on Pain: Hope to accomplish: (during the lecture) - the problem/puzzle/challenge of pain - conceptual models for understanding pain - perceiving pain in others IASP (International Association of the Study of Pain) Definition of Pain (1994): - an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actually or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage - note: pain is only “associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage” - pain’s primary function is to alert us of tissue damage or disease, therefore, people with pain insensitivity don’t usually live very long Epidemiology: - Acute pain: annually 15-20% of approx. 31 million Canadians have acute pain warranting clinical care; the cardinal symptom of disease! - Chronic pain (CP): pain that is persistent in either continuous or intermittent forms (two types below) o CP: associated with terminal illness (cancer, HIV/AIDS, etc.); it is estimated that 80% of us will die in pain o CP: nonmalignant (19.1%); other estimates: 25-30% have chronic pain - From the womb to the tomb - Acute pain reactions (temporal span is brief – minutes, hours or days) o Associated with fear and anxiety, sometimes anger; conditionable o Meaning: apprehension, hypervigilance, catastrophizing (negative cognitive state; three characteristics: 1. magnification (thinking it is the end of the world & that the pain is the worst in the whole world), 2. rheumination (focusing on the pain & not being able to think about anything else), 3. helplessness (nothing can help make the pain go away)) - Chronic pain reactions (temporal span in long-term – beyong healing time: months, years) o Depression, mood disorders, inner directed anger? o Meaning: hopelessness, helplessness - Some people with chronic pain display acute reaction pattern Categories of Pain: - based on known mechanisms:
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o mechanical, inflammatory, ischemic (cutting off blood flow to the brain), neuropathic (associated with damage to the nervous system (afferent
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