Eosc 270 Lecture Notes - March 19th

Eosc 270 Lecture Notes - March 19th - Eosc 270 Lecture...

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Mar.19 th , 2009 Deep-sea Chemosynthetic-based Communities Hydrothermal vent communities: - there are 30 hydrothermal vent communities in the deep ocean - first ecosystem not relying on photosynthetic organisms (producers) - black smoke, acidic, chimneys Cold seeps communities: (methane hydrates) - 25 deep sea locations - Whale falls communities: - first community discovered off the coast of California (Catalina Island) - ~20 communities discovered in total - first organic flesh of whale is eaten, then lipid-rich bones of the whale sustain another ecosystem - whale falls are abundant in the North Pacific where there are migrating groups of whales Lost City Community: - discovered in 2001 off the Mid-Atlantic Ridge - white, basic (pH 9-11), chimneys (very different from hydrothermal vents) Deep-Sea Chemosynthetic-based Communities: - relying on energy derived form chemical reactions instead of light (from the sun) Classification of organisms: - energy source: o light (phototrophic) o chemical (chemotrophic) - electron donor source: o inorganic compounds (lithotrophic) o organic compounds (organotrophic) - C source: o Inorganic CO2 (autotrophic) o Organic C (heterotrophic) - some organisms live too far in the deep ocean to use light as an energy source to fix CO2, therefore, they must use chemically-derived energy for marine autotrophy - common compounds oxidized by chemolithotrophs to generate energy & electrons: H2S, S, H2, CH4, NH4+, etc. o
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Eosc 270 Lecture Notes - March 19th - Eosc 270 Lecture...

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