ASM 301 Study Guide 5.docx

ASM 301 Study Guide 5.docx - ASM 301 Arizona State...

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ASM 301 Arizona State University Module 5 Study Guides Episode 5.1: The Neolithic Revolution Concepts/Debates you should understand: When and where did domestication first occur? Levant (~12 kya) How does the diversity of modern domesticates compare with wild plants and animals? Overall, the genetic diversity of domesticates is lower than in the wild progenitors What are some traits associated with a “domestication phenotype” in plants and in animals? Lack of Teosinte glume architecture 1 gene in maize + single amino acid change (below) Changes in tameness, behavior, size and morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size Animals: A diet easily supplemented by humans Rapid growth and reproduction rates Placid disposition The ability to breed in captivity Easy to manage Remain calm in enclosures Plants: Large seeds or tubers Annuals Selfing hermaphroditic reproduction, rather than outcrossing Easily harvested Can be stored for long periods Monogenic control of crucial traits What were some of the earliest domesticated animals and plants? The dog was the first domesticated species (at the latest, ~ 15 kya) Modern evidence suggested a divergence from the wolf ~ 27 – 40 kya One or two domestication events? Crops of edible seeds: Wheat, Barley, Peas, Lentils, Chickpeas, Bitter Vetch, Flax, Rice, and Corn What is the archaeological evidence for domestication in different regions? Suggests that domestic dogs were present in the Levant, Iraq, northern China, and the Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia (~ 12 kya)
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ASM 301 Arizona State University In Western Europe a few millennia before that Centers of Domestication: The Levant Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) Iraq Turkey Syria Jordan China: Rice and Millet (7.5 kya) Bean, Soy Sahel, Africa: Rice and Sorghum (~ 5 kya) Three regions of the Americas: Domesticated corn independently Squashes, potatoes, and sunflowers Terms or people to know: Neolithic Revolution Domestication An evolutionary process in which humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of those populations are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance Obstacles : Growth rate (elephants) Food source (anteaters) Breeding in captivity (cheetahs) Maize/Teosinte Teosinte Glume Architecture 1 gene Controls the formation of the tough protective covering on Teosinte kernels Not found in Maize ! Single amino acid change found in all Maize (but not Teosinte) is thought to be the reason for the dramatic change in phenotype Domestication phenotype (domestication syndrome)
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ASM 301 Arizona State University Suite of heritable traits not seen in wild progenitors that are distinctive and associated with domestication Levant & Fertile Crescent The earliest archaeological evidence for agriculture (~12 kya) Cultural diffusion The hypothesis that farming methods and technology spread among indigenous hunter- gatherer groups over time, as a process of exchange
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