# l02 - lecture 2 Topics Where are we Forces of the form F(v...

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lecture 2 Topics: Where are we? Forces of the form F ( v ) Example: F ( v ) = - m Γ v Another example: F ( v ) = - mβ v 2 Forces of the form F ( x ) Review of the harmonic oscillator Linearity and Time Translation Invariance Back to F ( v ) = - m Γ v Where are we? Last time, we discussed Newton’s second law — F = ma . I tried to convince you that this is essentially equivalent to the statement that the motion of any given classical mechanical system is determined by a set of initial conditions , the values of the coordinates which specify its con- ﬁguration, and their ﬁrst derivatives at any given time. I also suggested that this is a very deep and interesting fact about the world, and promised that we would come back to it at the end of the course and give at least a provisional explanation of it. We also discussed how to solve for the motion of a system numerically by keeping track of q and ˙ q as functions of time, and using the Taylor expansion and F = ma to calculate approximately how they change in a small time step Δ t . By putting together many small time steps, we can trace out the trajectory of the system. This procedure works for any any number of degrees of freedom, and it should convince you that in principle, giving a second order differential equation for the conﬁguration of a classical does just what expect - it determines the trajectory in terms a set of two initial conditions per degree of freedom. In a sense, our numerical analysis completely solves the problem - at least least your computer can construct the solution to any problem. But for us people, it is nice to have analytic solutions that we can use to develop our intuition. So we also talked about systems with one degree of freedom in which the force depends only on time. In this VERY special case, we found that we could write down the formal solution simply by integration. Then if the integral can be done analytically, we get a completely analytic solution. Today, we will give some more examples of very special systems in which we can do more than just solving numerically. In some sense, I will just be showing you a collection of dirty tricks, because it is only in very special cases that they work. But more generally, today’s lecture should be regarded as a bunch of examples of the different ways in which initial conditions can enter into the solutions of classical mechanics problems. We always need two initial conditions per degree of freedom. But they appear in the actual trajectories in many different ways. In fact, I have something else in mind as well. At the end, when we come to discuss the harmonic oscillator, we will see that there are some very important general principles at work. These will be very useful, and we will come back to them many times.

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## This note was uploaded on 05/09/2009 for the course NATURAL SC Physics taught by Professor Johnrobertson during the Spring '09 term at German University in Cairo.

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l02 - lecture 2 Topics Where are we Forces of the form F(v...

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