ex3sg_2009 - Study Guide for Exam#3 Zoo 470 2009 Reminder...

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Study Guide for Exam #3 - Zoo 470 – 2009 Reminder : Exam 3 will be held at 10:05 am, Monday, May 11, in room 105 Psychology (Brogden Hall). General comments : This exam is non-cumulative . However, if we reviewed a concept from earlier parts of the course, you will be responsible for it as it relates to topics in the last part of the course. Several tips: (1) The nature of the material on this exam means there is more terminology and that there are more terms that need to be learned that are pure vocabulary. For some students this is actually easier; for others with a lot of molecular/genetic/cell biological background, this aspect of Unit 3 is more difficult. (2) You may be asked to draw comparisons or cite more than one example where a pathway/process is used. One good example is the role β -catenin plays in diverse organisms; another might be similarities and differences between the Organizer equivalent in various vertebrates, etc. Important note : Remember that there is one thing you are expected to know that we covered in class but are primarily based on your reading: Brain vesicles and what they form. A. Axis Specification and Gastrulation in Amphibians Note : Two resources are especially useful for the section on amphibians: (1) Please check out the old (but still useful) frog materials at: http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/frogs/welcome.html In particular, the sections on Cortical Rotation , the Blastula , and Gastrulation are really useful. (2) The step-by-step guide to axis specification in amphibians, available on [email protected] and the off-site course web page. 1. Classic experiments on axis formation in amphibians : what is the gray crescent , and how can hair loop experiments be used to show the importance of something in this region of the fertilized egg? On which side of the animal hemisphere does the sperm entry point lie, in relation to the future dorsal side of the embryo? What cytoskeletal system drives cortical rotation in frogs? Can you cite experiments that show that cortical rotation, however it is induced, is sufficient for axis specification in frogs/ How can blastomere transplantation be used to show that dorsal, vegetal blastomeres have special properties with respect to axis formation (i.e., rescue of UV-treated eggs, production of double axes, etc.)? What is the "Nieuwkoop Center" , and what experiments suggest that it exists? What is the organizer experiment ? 2. Molecular basis of mesoderm induction in amphibians : What role is β -catenin thought to play in mesoderm induction? How can we show this using mRNA overexpression? How is localized Dishevelled protein thought to contribute to elevation of β -catenin dorsally after fertilization? What gene's expression is upregulated by dorsal elevation of β -catenin? What experiments indicate that siamois leads vegetal cells to behave like a Nieuwkoop Center? What role is VegT thought to play in establishing the endoderm? How are Xenopus Nodal-related proteins thought to pattern the vegetal region, and, later, the mesoderm of the marginal zone?
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ex3sg_2009 - Study Guide for Exam#3 Zoo 470 2009 Reminder...

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