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Chapter 49 - Chapter 49 Circulation Respiration I Transport...

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Chapter 49 Circulation & Respiration I. Transport systems in Invertebrates A. Protozoa – (protista) 1. Cell Membranes 2. Food vacuoles 3. diffusion B. Porifera – Sponges 1. circulate water through body cavities 2. ameboid cells for nutrient transport C. Cnidaria - GVC 1. nutrients 2. oxygen 3. waste removal D. Platyhelminthes 1. branching GVC penetrates the body 2. diffusion = short distance 3. flat body = no cells too far from GVC 4. body movements move materials
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E. Pseudocoelomates & Echinoderms 1. coelomic fluid for transport 2. muscle contraction moves fluid 3. fluid in contact with internal organs II. Circulatory Systems A. Open systems 1. Heart pumps blood (hemolymph) into body cavity (hemocoel) 2. Bathes cells, tissues, organs 3. No difference between extracellular fluid and circulating fluid 4. Mollusks – some blood vessels but empty into mantle cavity a. blood used for gas exchange 5. insects – hemolymph not for gas exchange a. Aquatic arthropods = gas exchange
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B. Closed circulatory systems – 1. circulating fluid is enclosed in vessels that transport it away from and back to heart 2. cephalopods – closed system a. muscular heart b. brachial hearts c. increased blood flow for active lifestyle 3. Annelida - gas exchange = diffusion but blood distributes O 2 a. dorsal blood vessel b. ventral blood vessel c. lateral vessels - contractile III. Vertebrate Circulatory Systems: All vertebrates have a closed system A. characteristics 1. Functions a. gas exchange b. nutrient transport c. waste transport d. defense
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e. clotting f. temperature regulation 2. Composition of blood a. plasma = fluid matrix 1. 90% water 2. solvent for transporting nutrients etc. b. proteins c. ions d. Cellular component 1. erythrocytes – rbc’s – gas exchange 2. leucocytes – wbc’s various functions – immunity , defense 3.
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