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Chapter 28 - Chapter 28 Prokaryotes I Prokaryotic Cell...

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Chapter 28 Prokaryotes I. Prokaryotic Cell Types A. Basic forms 1. Bacillus = rod shaped 2. Coccus = spherical 3. Spirillum – long and helical II. Archaea vs. Bacteria A. Plasma membrane – both groups have a lipid bilayer that differ from eukaryotes B. Cell Wall – protective cell walls cover the plasma membrane Bacteria = peptidoglycan C. Gene translation = RNA Archaebacteria similar to eukaryotes Bacteria differs D. Bacterial genes not interrupted by introns archaebacteria have introns
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III. Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes A. All unicellular B. 1 micron or less vs.10 or more microns C. Chromosomes – single circular DNA no nucleus D. Cell division = binary fission vs. mitosis E. No organelles except ribosomes F. flagella = a single fiber protein vs. multiple microtubule fibers G. Metabolic diversity IV. The Prokaryotic Cell A. Cell wall = 1. Peptidoglycan = polysaccharide with polypeptide cross links Gram positive Gram negative 2. Flagella – singular protein flagellin spins like a propeller 3. Pili – small hairlike structures help with attachment 4. Endospore- thick-walled structures that form in unfavorable conditions
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B. Cell Interior
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