mech_2_kinetics_of_particles

# mech_2_kinetics_of_particles - Forces The concept of force...

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Forces The concept of force is useful because it enables the branches of mechanical science to be brought together. For example, a knowledge of force required to accelerate a car makes it possible to decide on the size of the engine and the transmission system. And force can be treated as a ‘currency’ between thermodynamics or electro technology or material science. Newton's Three Laws of Motion Newton's first law of motion states that if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero, then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. If the force exerted on an object is zero, the object does not necessarily have zero velocity. Without any forces acting on it, including friction, an object in motion will continue to travel at constant velocity. The Second Law Newton's second law relates net force and acceleration. A net force on an object will accelerate it—that is, change its velocity. The acceleration will be proportional to the magnitude of the force and in the same direction as the force. The proportionality constant is the mass, m, of the object. F = ma In the International System of Units (also known as SI, after the initials of Système International), acceleration, a, is measured in meters per second per second. Mass is measured in kilograms; force, F, in newtons. A newton is defined as the force necessary to impart to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec; this is equivalent to about 0.2248 lb. A massive object will require a greater force for a given acceleration than a small, light object. What is remarkable is that mass, which is a measure of the inertia of an object (inertia is its reluctance to change velocity), is also a measure of the gravitational attraction that the object exerts on other objects. It is surprising and profound that the inertial property and the gravitational property are determined by the same thing. The implication of this phenomenon is that it is impossible to distinguish at a point whether the point is in a gravitational field or in an accelerated frame of reference. Einstein made this one of the cornerstones of his general theory of relativity , which is the currently accepted theory of gravitation. Friction Friction acts like a force applied in the direction opposite to an object's velocity. For dry sliding friction, where no lubrication is present, the friction force is almost independent of velocity. Also, the friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact between an object and the surface upon which it slides. The actual contact area—that is, the area where the microscopic bumps on the object and sliding surface are actually touching each other— is relatively small. As the object moves across the sliding surface, the tiny bumps on the object and sliding surface collide, and force is required to move the bumps past each other.

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## mech_2_kinetics_of_particles - Forces The concept of force...

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