Of the People 3 Chapter 15 Reconstructing a Nation.pptx -...

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RECONSTRUCTING A NATION: 1865-1877 Chapter 15 Of the People: A History of the United States. Oakes, McGerr, Lewis, Cullather, Boydston, Summers , Townsend and Dunak. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords Reconstruction Period; 1877; Black codes; carpetbaggers; scalawags; Sea Islands; 4 million slaves; 13 th Amendment; 14 th Amendment; 15 th Amendment; 40 acres and a mule; Freedmen’s Bureau; Ku Klux Klan; Radical Reconstruction; sharecropping; Jim Crow; Rutherford B. Hayes, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson; Tenure of Office Act; Liberal Republicans; Thomas Dixon, The Clansman; D.W. Griffith, Birth of a Nation , grandfather clause; poll taxes, literacy tests; Ten- Percent Plan; Wade-Davis Bill; Elizabeth Cady Stanton; Nathan Banks; John Dennett; Ulysses S. Grant; Horace Greeley; Oliver Otis Howard; William Sylvis; National Labor Union (NLU)
Common Threads In what ways did emancipation and wartime Reconstruction overlap? When did Reconstruction begin? Did Reconstruction change the South? If so, how? If not, why not? What brought Reconstruction to an end?
13 th Amendment The Civil War ended in 1865 but did not free slaves The 13 th Amendment abolished slavery in the U.S. ratified December 6, 1865 Freed 4 million blacks enslaved in the United States Mississippi ratified the 13 th amendment on March 16, 1995 (after having rejected the amendment in 1865)
American Portrait: John Dennett Visits a Freedman’s Bureau Court John Dennett reporter from the Nation Assigned to Liberty, Virginia Attended Freedmen’s Bureau hearings regarding disputes between freed blacks and southern whites Able to witness first-hand the chaos of the south following the Civil War
The Meaning of Freedom End of punishment Reuniting with families Education Establish churches & social clubs Engage in politics Ownership of land Legalize marriages Control over families Leave plantations seeking better lives in towns and cities Eliminate work gang-labor system Dress as they pleased Own dogs or carry canes Choose their own names including surnames Move about Religious freedom
Experiments with Free Labor In 1861 Sea Islands off South Carolina were occupied by Union troops Leaving behind between 5,000 – 10,000 slaves Many plantations were abandoned Slave families were given small plots in return for a share of the crop Former landowners returned after the war to claim lands
Louisiana Southern Louisiana came under Union control Louisiana planters did not abandon their plantations; sugar plantations could not be organized into small sharecropping units General Nathaniel Banks initiated the Banks Plan
Banks Plan Required freed people to sign yearlong contracts to work on their former plantations Workers were paid 5% of the proceeds of the crop (about $3 per month) Planters would supply food & shelter Many restrictions including: not being allowed to leave plantations without permission Many felt the plan was only a step about slavery

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