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Chapter 3 Attraction

Chapter 3 Attraction - Chapter 3 Attraction 1 Attraction...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Attraction 1 Attraction The Fundamental Basis of Attraction: A Matter of Rewards Proximity: Liking Those Near Us Physical Attractiveness: Liking Those Who Are Lovely Reciprocity: Liking Those Who Like Us Similarity: Liking Those Who Are Like Us Barriers: Liking Those We Cannot Have So, What Do Men and Women Want? 2 Attraction A basic assumption: We like those who reward us …either because they treat us well, or simply because they are present when positive events occur. 3 Proximity: Liking Those Near Us We tend to like those who live and work near us. Small distances have a larger influence on our relationships than most people realize. Why? 4 Proximity: Liking Those Near Us Convenience Familiarity – Mere exposure, or repeated contact, with someone usually increases our liking for him or her. 5 Physical Attractiveness: Liking Those Who Are Lovely There’s a Bias for Beauty: “What is Beautiful is Good” ­­we tend to automatically assume that attractive people also have desirable traits …being socially skilled, happy, and well­adjusted. 6 Physical Attractiveness Who’s attractive? – ­­around the world, women are more attractive when they combine “baby­faced” features such as large eyes, a small nose, and full lips with signs of maturity such as prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, and a broad smile. – ­­men with strong jaws and broad foreheads seem appealing when women are fertile, …but women prefer warmer, more youthful features during the rest of the month. 7 Physical Attractiveness Most women find the masculine face on the right to be more attractive when they are fertile, but they consider the more feminine face on the left to be more appealing during the rest of the month. 8 Physical Attractiveness Attractive faces in both sexes are also: Average, possessing dimensions that are neither too large or too small, and Symmetrical, with the two sides of the face being very similar to one another Beautiful faces combine the best features of individual faces in a balanced, well­proportioned whole. 9 Physical Attractiveness Look what happens when 2, 8, or 32 real faces are morphed together in composite images. “Average” faces are attractive faces. Source: Rubenstein, Langlois, & Roggman, 2002 10 10 Physical Attractiveness http://youtube.com/watch?v=1AZe9g2Huz0 http://youtube.com/watch?v=JO9tOuSrnrk http://youtube.com/watch?v=laIv4Kbcz­Q http://youtube.com/watch?v=E1kqMk3jFD8 http://youtube.com/watch?v=5pRJtjlHj_M http://youtube.com/watch?v=kJei0ddco9U http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=iYhCn0jf46U&feature=related 11 11 Physical Attractiveness What’s an attractive body? ­­around the world, men prefer women of normal weight with a curvy 0.7 waist­to­hip ratio. ­­women like men with a healthy 0.9 waist­to­hip ratio, if they have good incomes. 12 12 Physical Attractiveness Judgments of attractiveness are multifaceted: – Height – both men and women prefer him to be taller than she is – Smell – symmetrical people smell better – Hair length – men prefer longer hair to shorter hair on women 13 13 An Evolutionary Perspective on Physical Attractiveness – Standards of who is and who is not attractive are much the same around the world. – Babies are born with preferences for the same faces that we find to be attractive as adults. – People with symmetrical, attractive faces tend to enjoy good physical and mental health. – People with attractive waist­to­hip ratios tend to enjoy good physical health. – Good looks matter more to people near the equator, where there are more parasites and pathogens that can endanger one’s health – and one’s beauty . – There are provocative changes in women’s preferences across their monthly menstrual cycles. 14 14 Physical Attractiveness Physical Attractiveness Culture Matters, Too – Fashions tend to change as a culture’s sex ratio does. – During hard times, when a culture’s food supply is unreliable, slender women are less desirable than heavy women are. Environmental conditions work together with human nature to shape our judgments of who is and who isn’t pretty. 15 15 Who Has a Bias for Beauty? Men do more than women high self­monitors, who care a lot about the impressions they make on others, also put a high value on good looks. 16 16 The Interactive Costs and Benefits of Beauty – Looks have a larger effect on the social lives of men than women; unattractive men have fewer interactions with women than good­looking guys do. – Attractive people tend to be a little happier than unattractive people are, but they don’t trust other people as much. – Contrast effects may lead us to underestimate the desirability of many people we meet; 17 17 Physical Attractiveness – the reality Matching in Physical Attractiveness People tend to pair off with others of similar levels of physical attractiveness. ? 18 18 Reciprocity: Liking Those Who Like Us Most of us pursue partners who are likely to return our interest. Physical Probability of Desirability = X Attractiveness Acceptance 19 19 Reciprocity Most people find it hard not to like those who like them. Balance theory suggests that we prefer consistency and symmetry in our relationships… 20 20 Similarity: Liking Those Who Are Like Us We tend to like those who share our: • Age, race, sex, religion, and social class • Attitudes and values, and • Personalities The greater the proportion of attitudes people share, the more they like each other: 21 21 Similarity Discovering Similarities Takes Time – First influenced by Perceived Similarity – Stimulus­value­role theory suggests that there are three different types of information about new partners that gradually unfold over time. – Fatal attractions occur when something about a new partner that is appealing and attractive gradually becomes one of the most obnoxious, irritating things about that partner. 22 22 Similarity Why Is Similarity Attractive? It’s reassuring to encounter others who share our points of view. We anticipate friendly interaction with similar others. Interaction with similar others does tend to be more fun. 23 23 Barriers: Liking Those We Cannot Have The theory of psychological reactance states that when people lose their freedom, they strive to regain it. Potential partners also get prettier at closing time. – As the end of a night approaches, unattached bar patrons consider the remaining members of the other sex to be more attractive than they seemed to be earlier. – From the Mickey Gilley song, Don't the Girls All Get Prettier at Closing Time 24 24 So, What Do Men and Women Want? Around the world, everybody prefers partners who offer: • • • Warmth and loyalty Attractiveness and vitality Status and resources …and how much of these qualities are required depends on whether one’s interests are short­term or long­term. 25 25 So, What Do Men and Women Want? Attraction isn’t so mysterious after all. Men attend more to looks and women attend more to resources, but everybody wants partners who are agreeable, loving, and kind… 26 26 In sexual selection, one sex — usually the female — chooses among the available males. Any inherited trait that improves the mating success of certain individuals will become more pronounced in succeeding generations. Some examples: Sexual Selection Assortative mating Humans seldom mate at random preferring phenotypes like themselves (e.g., size, age, ethnicity). 27 27 Sexual Dimorphism 28 28 Preferences in human mate selection Three Characteristics Consensually placed at the top: 1. Intelligent What about the Sex Differences? – Males preferred mates who were physically attractive – Women preferred mates who demonstrated good earning potential and were college educated. 29 29 1. Kind/Understanding 2. Exciting Personality Cross­cultural Sex Differences and Preferences Mate preferences reflect different selection pressures Five predictions were made based on evolutionary concepts: – – – – – – – Results strongly confirmed: Parental Investment Sexual Selection Human Reproductive Capacity Sexual asymmetries regarding paternal and maternal certainty Mate preference for earning potential Relative youth Physical attractiveness Mixed Results for – Ambition –Industriousness – Chastity 30 30 ...
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