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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Communication Noise and Interference Noise and Interference Sender’s Intentions (private and known only by sender) Sender’s style of Encoding Sender’s Actions (public and observable by anyone) Effect on Listener (private and known only by listener Listener’s style of Decoding Interpersonal Communication "The Love Lab" John Gottman Words can heal an ailing relationshipor seal its negative fate. Gottman claims he can predict a relationship's outcome with 88 percent to 94 percent accuracy. Happy and unhappy couples differ on the impact of their messages to one another – the manner in which the message is expressed and what their partners think is being expressed. Contempt – most damaging
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E94xTxEydN4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xw9SE315GtA Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication involves all the things people do in interaction except for what they say. Hall, E., Hall, M. (1971). The Sounds of Silence. Playboy. 4449. Functions of Nonverbal Communication Providing Information Regulating Interaction Defining Relationships Components of Nonverbal Communication Because facial expressions are so informative, people sometimes try to control them: – – – – Intensifying, or exaggerating, them Minimizing, or lessening, them Neutralizing, or withholding, them Masking, or replacing, them with other apparent emotions Facial Expressions Components of Nonverbal Communication Gazing Behavior
The direction and amount of a person’s eye contact is also influential. Components of Nonverbal Communication Body Movement Gestures can replace spoken words, but they vary widely from culture to culture. Touch (Haptics) Touching defines relationships. Components of Nonverbal Communication (Heslin, Nguyen, & Nguyen, 1983) Components of Nonverbal Communication Interpersonal Distance
We use different zones of personal space for different kinds of interactions: – Intimate zone – the area within 1½ feet of the front of our chests. – Personal zone – the area 1½ to 4 feet away used for interactions with friends and acquaintances. – Social zone – businesslike interactions 4 to 12 feet away. – Public zone – formal interactions at larger distances. Components of Nonverbal Communication Paralanguage All the variations in a person’s voice other than the actual words he or she uses: – rhythm – pitch – volume – rate – accent Components of Nonverbal Communication Combining the Components Nonverbal behavior usually reinforces our verbal meaning. But when there is a discrepancy between people’s words and actions, their true meaning usually lies in their nonverbal, not their verbal, communication. The accuracy with which couples communicate nonverbally predicts how happy their relationships will be. Nonverbal Sensitivity Gender Differences in Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal LowStatus HighStatus Behavior Women Men Person Person ==================================================== Smiling more less more less Gazing Posture Touch low VDR high VDR low VDR high VDR closed, open, closed, open, symmetric asymmetric symmetric asymmetric less less more more less less more more Distance Paralanguage submissive assertive submissive assertive Nonverbal Sensitivity more less more less Sex Differences in Nonverbal Communication Theory of Social Penetration Verbal Communication SelfDisclosure – The process of revealing personal information about oneself to someone else The Theory of Social Penetration As relationships develop, partners become more intimate by increasing two aspects of their verbal communication: – Its breadth – the variety of topics they discuss, and – Its depth – the personal significance of the topics they discuss. Selfdisclosure that fits the situation breeds liking and contentment in close relationships Gender Differences in Verbal Communication Topics of Conversation – Women discuss their feelings and gossip – Men tend to stick to more impersonal matters Styles of Conversation – Women speak less forcefully, using more hedges and questions, and less profanity, than men do. – Men also do most of the talking. Gender Differences in Verbal Communication SelfDisclosure – Men tend to disclose less to their partners than women do, but they do disclose more personal information to women than to other men. Instrumentality Versus Expressivity – Whether they are male or female, people who are high in expressivity share intimate verbal communication with people they trust. Dysfunctional Communication and What to Do about It Miscommunication – Unhappy partners do a poor job of saying what they mean. – Unhappy partners also do a poor job of hearing each other. – Unhappy partners also display negative affect when they talk with each other Dysfunctional Communication and What to Do about It Saying What We Mean – Behavior description involves identifying as plainly as possible a specific behavior that annoyed us. – Istatements start with “I” and then describe a distinct, specific emotional reaction. – XYZ statements combine behavior descriptions with Istatements: “When you do X in situation Y, I feel Z.” Dysfunctional Communication and What to Do about It
Active Listening As listeners, we face two vital tasks: – Accurately understanding what our partners are trying to say, and – Communicating that attention and comprehension to our partners so that they know we care about what they’ve said. – Paraphrasing – Perception checking Dysfunctional Communication and What to Do about It Being Polite and Staying Cool – Avoid the temptation to attribute hostile intent to your partner. – Schedule regular meetings for the polite airing of grievances. – Don’t keep trading sarcastic insults when you get angry; take a “time out”. – Take just six long, slow, deep breaths per minute, and you’ll calm down faster than you think. Finally, there is Great Power in Respect and Validation The Chameleon Effect: The PerceptionBehavior Interpretive schemas refer to belief systems used to perceive and interpret behaviors Behavioral schemas relate to the actual production of behavior participants unknowingly mimicked the nonverbal behaviors of their partners. socially adaptive explanation for why automatic mimicry occurs. synchronization of individual members within a group and increases in empathy, liking, and social bonding Selfaware or empathetic people are more likely to catch the yawns Link and Social Interaction ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2009 for the course PSYC 359 taught by Professor Barone during the Spring '09 term at USC.
- Spring '09