Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 The Dissolution and Loss The of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 The Dissolution and Loss The of Relationships of I've been looking at people And how they change with the times And lately all I've been seeing are people Throwing love away and losing their minds Or maybe it's me that's gone crazy 'Cause I can't understand why All these people keep hurting each other When good love is so hard to come by So what's the glory in living Doesn't anybody ever stay together anymore And if love never lasts forever Then tell me what's forever for What's Forever For by Michael Murphey “Now you are going to find out how long forever really is.” Nelson Riddle The Changing Rate of Divorce The current rate of divorce in the U.S. is a bit lower than it was at its peak back in 1980. The chance that a marriage will end in separation or divorce is still close to 50%. About 1 out of every 9 adult women in the U.S. is presently divorced. More than a third of the children do not live with their biological fathers. Divorces are much more common in the U.S. than in most other countries. 19 50 57 65 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 19 19 19 93 95 97 19 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . .. .... . 19 .... . .... . .... . .. .. .. .. .. 99 ..... .. 20 ...... 01 . . .... .... .. .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... .... . .. .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 .... . Divorces per 1,000 population Copied from Table 83 on p. 4 of pdf of Section 2 of 2003 Statistical Abstract of the U.S., at http:// www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/03statab/vitstat.pdf Divorce rates of other countries, compared to U.S. Country Divorce Rate ­ Rate as % of US Rate (Per 1000 population per year) Sri Lanka Brazil 0.27 0.33 Japan Turkey Mongolia Chile Jamaica Cyprus El Salvador Ecuador Mauritius Thailand Syria Panama Brunei Greece China 0.15 3.03% 0.26 5.25% Italy 5.45% Mexico 6.67% 0.33 6.67% 0.37 7.47% 0.37 7.47% 0.38 7.68% 0.38 7.68% 0.39 7.88% 0.41 8.28% 0.42 8.48% 0.47 9.49% 0.58 11.72% 0.65 13.13% 0.68 13.74% 0.72 14.55% 0.76 15.35% 0.79 15.96% Singapore 0.80 Tunisia 0.82 Albania 0.83 Portugal 0.88 Korea 0.88 Trinidad 0.97 Qatar 0.97 Guadeloupe 1.18 Barbados 1.21 Finland 1.85 Canada 2.46 Australia 2.52 New Zealand 2.63 Denmark 2.81 United 3.08 Kingdom Russia 3.36 Puerto Rico 4.47 US 4.95 16.16% 16.57% 16.77% 17.78% 17.78% 19.60% 19.60% 23.84% 24.44% 37.37% 49.70% 50.91% 53.13% 56.77% 62.22% 67.88% 90.30% 100.00% The Changing Rate of Divorce Several influences may underlie the big increase in American divorce: – Demanding expectations – Women work outside the home – – – – – – Gender roles are changing Western culture is more individualistic Sex ratios are lower Divorce is less shameful and easier to obtain Cohabitation is more prevalent There are more children of divorce independence hypothesis The Predictors of Divorce Levinger’s Barrier Model – Attraction – the desire to remain in a partnership is enhanced by its rewards but diminished by its costs – Alternatives – tempting alternatives increase the appeal of leaving one’s current partner – Barriers – various social pressures, religious constraints, and financial costs may make it hard to leave The Predictors of Divorce Karney and Bradbury’s Vulnerability­Stress­Adaptation Model Benjamin Karney and Thomas Bradbury suggested another three factors that can contribute to divorce: – Enduring vulnerabilities – personal liabilities or weaknesses with which people begin their marriages – Adaptive Processes – the techniques with which partners try to cope with stress – Stressful events – the difficulties people encounter The Predictors of Divorce Results from the PAIR Project For decades, researchers have been tracking 168 couples who married in 1981. Fewer than half are still happily married. Three possibilities have been investigated. – Enduring dynamics – Emergent distress – Disillusionment The Predictors of Divorce The Early Years of Marriage Project The EYM project has been following 174 white couples and 199 black couples since they married in 1986. Most of the black couples (55%) have divorced, compared to about a third (36%) of the white couples. The Predictors of Divorce People’s Personal Perceptions of the Causes of Divorce Our marital outcomes are influenced by: – The cultural context, such as laws, social norms, and economic opportunities, – Our personal context, including our social networks and neighborhoods, and – A relational context that we create through our interactions with our partners. The Predictors of Divorce When divorced people were asked what caused their divorces, they reported: – – – – – – Infidelity Incompatibility Drug or alcohol use Growing apart Personality problems, and Abuse The Predictors of Divorce Specific Factors Associated with Divorce – – – – – – – Socioeconomic status Race Sex ratios No­fault legislation Working women Prior marriage Parental divorce – – – – – – – – Premarital cohabitation Personality Attachment style Genetics Time apart Negative interactions Sexual dissatisfaction Marital dissatisfaction The Road to Divorce Breaking Up with Premarital Partners – Most of the time, they never tell their partners that they seek to leave, so their efforts are indirect rather than explicit and direct. – Their efforts are usually selfish and self­oriented instead of considerate and other­oriented. – There is rarely a critical incident that suddenly changes their feelings about the relationship; instead, their discontent usually grows gradually rather than suddenly. – Most of the time, only they and not their partners, want the relationship to end. – They typically make several protracted attempts to end the relationship instead of succeeding quickly. The Road to Divorce Steps to Divorce – In an initial personal phase, one partner grows dissatisfied. – In the dyadic phase that follows, that discontent is revealed, and confrontation, negotiation, and attempts at reconciliation may occur. – If the end nears, a social phase begins; the partners publicize their distress and seek support from friends and family. – Finally, at the end, a grave­dressing phase begins. People put the failed relationship behind them with reassessment, rationalization, and accounts. The Aftermath of Separation and Divorce It can take years to adjust Negative emotions are common. Social networks shrink. Women’s finances usually deteriorate. The Aftermath of Separation and Divorce Relationships between Former Partners – Fiery Foes remain fierce antagonists. – Angry Associates stay bitter, but they manage to work together inparenting. – Cooperative Colleagues collaborate without rancor. – Perfect Pals maintain a respectful friendship. The Aftermath of Separation and Divorce Children Whose Parents Divorce Children of divorce exhibit lower levels of well­being when they reach adulthood than do those whose parents stay married. Several possibilities exist. – – – – Parental loss Parental stress Economic hardship Parental conflict ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2009 for the course PSYC 359 taught by Professor Barone during the Spring '09 term at USC.

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