This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Shyness and Shyness Loneliness Shyness
social reticence inhibited interactive behavior nervous discomfort in social settings Shyness
When shy people have an excuse for an interaction to go badly, they remain relatively relaxed and do not act shy. Participants’ Shyness Low High _______Noise Level_____ “Soft” “Loud” 5.3 4.7 15.8 4.5 The values reflect arousal in the form of increases in heart rate as the interaction begins. (Leary, 1986) Loneliness
Loneliness may be of two different types: social isolation, people are dissatisfied because they lack a social network of friends and acquaintances. emotional isolation, people are lonely because they lack a single intense relationship. Loneliness
Measuring Loneliness The UCLA Loneliness Scale contains three different themes that produce high loneliness scores. Isolation from others: “How often do you feel alone?” Lack of close connection to others: “How often do you feel that no one really knows you well?” Too little social connection to people in general: “How often do you feel that there is no one you can turn to? Loneliness
A variety of emotions and desires can accompany loneliness, but four different sets of feelings are common: – – – – desperation impatient boredom selfdeprecation, and depression Loneliness
Loneliness can be consequential. It is associated with a variety of serious problems, including: – – – – – – Running away from home Crime and delinquency Poor grades Sleep disturbances Poor mental health Poor physical health Loneliness
Who’s Lonely? Americans are more lonely, on average, than people in many other countries are. Education and income are negatively correlated with loneliness. Married people are less lonely than those who are unmarried, and cohabitating partners are less lonely than singles People with secure styles of attachment tend to be less lonely than those who are insecure. Those with an identical twin who is lonely tend to be lonely, too. Unmarried men tend to be more lonely than unmarried women. Loneliness
Men who have a close partnership with a woman tend to be much less lonely than are men who are between partners. Loneliness scores: With a romantic Without a partner romantic partner Men Women 16.9 31.2 20.2 24.3 Loneliness Loneliness Across the Lifespan – Children of divorce are also prone to loneliness. – adolescents and young adults Possible Causes and Moderators of Loneliness Inadequacies in Our Relationships Changes in What We Want from Our Relationships Causal Attributions Interpersonal Behaviors Coping with Loneliness
People’s responses to loneliness fall into four types. Two of theses are active and constructive: – Active solitude – finding enjoyable things to do alone – Social contact – taking action to seek out others The other two are potentially selfdefeating: – Distractions – such as going shopping – Sad passivity – doing drugs or drink, or nothing at all Coping with Loneliness
There are adaptive ways to cope with loneliness: – Address your pessimistic passivity. Consider that going to social gatherings offers more benefits than risks. – Look for situational influences instead of blaming yourself. – Watch out for sour attitudes. Stay positive. – Concentrate on solid friendships instead of seeking a romantic soul mate. ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 05/10/2009 for the course PSYC 359 taught by Professor Barone during the Spring '09 term at USC.
- Spring '09