SAS L03 - Review Fungi are not photosynthetic Not...

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Review
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Fungi are not photosynthetic Not autotrophic Fungi are heterotrophic Require organic nutrients Fungi are food absorbers Digest food outside their bodies
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Spore Germination Hyphae Hyphae = filaments that constitute the body of the fungus Mycelium = network of hyphae Hypha = singular Living, dormant Filamentous growth apical cell extension or growth zone septal plugs Nutrient absorption zone Growth morphology Metabolism and synthesis zone
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Function of hyphae Secrete enzymes Absorb products of digestion Digest food Penetrate substrates Fungi grow into the things they decompose Fungi grow into the things they decompose Fungi can exert great force when they penetrate (4X as much force as needed to break concrete) Yeasts reproduce by budding
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Yeasts grow on surfaces In a film of moisture $729
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Human Diseases by Candida albicans Thrush Esophagitis Cutaneous Candidiasis Genital Yeast Infections Deep Candidiasis Candida albicans infection of nails and tissue surrounding the nail Candidiasis
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Mycelium in substrate Fruiting bodies on the surface Mycelium not distinctive
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Fruiting bodies used to identify species Shape and number of cells Spore characteristics used to identify species
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DNA sequence data is the current taxonomy star - samples the genome not the phenotype (appearance) - comparison of sequences leads to relationships Unique nucleotide sequence for each species DNA Plant Kingdom Animal Kingdom Fungal Kingdom Based on DNA sequence comparisons
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Dispersal Wind Function of spores is to reproduce individuals of the organism Ejection Insects Animals United Airlines Forcible ejection
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Survival Formed under conditions hostile to growth Lack of water Low temperature Depletion of nutrients Simple life cycle Spore Mycelium
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Simple life cycle spores spores No fleshy fruiting body Asexual spores = clones genetically identical to parent Sexual reproduction Basidiomycetes Sexual spores
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Basidiomycetes + - Sexual reproduction 2 nuclei Fusion Nuclei from two parents Nuclear Fusion Division Sexual spores are genetically different from both parents Four nuclei
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Fungi are haploid = one copy of each chromosome Mutations are expressed immediately Rapid evolution 1cm Existence on spatial scales that span 6 orders of magnitude
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1 M Fairy ring Prospero in Shakespeare’s The Tempest, V.i: “Ye elves of hills . . .that/ By moonshine do the green sour ringlets make,/ Whereof the ewe not bites, and you whose pastime/ Is to make midnight mushrooms . . .”.
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What fungi do Saprobes Grow on non-living organic matter Parasites Obtain nutrients from living organisms
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Mutualists Relationships with other organisms from which both benefit Mycorrhizae Termitomyces Mycorrhizae
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Mycorrhizal Associations Mycorrhizae • “myco” = fungus and “rhiza” = root Symbiotic association between plant roots and fungi • Several different types of association (defined by structure of fungus:plant interface)
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