SAS lecture 10

SAS lecture 10 - Secondary Metabolism in Fungi WHY DO WE...

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Unformatted text preview: Secondary Metabolism in Fungi WHY DO WE CARE? Gibberellic Acid Vomitoxin Sick Building Syndrome satratoxins Patulin Penicillin Aflatoxin Why do fungi make Lipitor? Rye First cultivated ~ 5 th Century Due to its competitive nature and ability to grow on poor soils and harsh conditions unlike wheat First appeared as weedy crop with the iron age ~ 8th century B.C.E. ( Secale cereale ) Rye Staple crop by 11 th Century ` Poland Germany France First cultivated ~ 5 th Century ERGOT INTRODUCED WITH RYE Rye SPORE BEARING STRUCTURES Spores Cross section of ascocarp shot into the air Spores infect flowers Ovary The disease cycle of ergot ERGOT, A NASTY FUNGUS, INTRODUCED WITH RYE sclerotia Rye Claviceps Claviceps purpurea purpurea Saint Anthony's Fire Ergotamine, a secondary metabolite called an alkaloid Ergot sclerotia contain 2% alkaloids, a family of chemicals which are psychoactive and act as agonists to serotonin disrupting neurotransmission What happened? What happened? Europe plagued with Europe plagued with epidemics of ergotism for epidemics of ergotism for centuries; recording centuries; recording began in 900 AD began in 900 AD 10,000 10,000 s die from holy fire s die from holy fire or Vitus dance in France or Vitus dance in France Monks of the Order of St. Monks of the Order of St. Anthony treated people Anthony treated people with holy fire by feeding with holy fire by feeding them bread made with them bread made with flour not contaminated flour not contaminated with ergot with ergot sclerotia sclerotia St. Anthony St. Anthony A quote from the 10 th Century Wailing and writhing men collapsed in the street, others fell over and foamed in epileptic fits, whilst some vomited and showed signs of insanity. Many of them shouted Fire! Im burning. It was an invisible fire that separated the flesh from the bones and consumed it. Men, women and children died in unbearable agonizing pain Tenth Century Chronicler Saint Anthony's Fire ERGOTISM 800 A.D. Symptoms: Giddiness Fatigue Nausea Pain in limbs Mild Muscle spasms Formication Severe Convulsions Vasoconstriction Gangrene Extreme ERGOT Contaminated Flour Enter the Temple Fast Drink Kykeon Hallucinations Tremors The Great Eleusinian Mysteries The Eleusinian Mysteries, were the most sacred and revered of all the ritual celebrations of ancient Greece....
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2009 for the course SAS 89957 taught by Professor David gilchrist during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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SAS lecture 10 - Secondary Metabolism in Fungi WHY DO WE...

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