lec5 - Chapter 5: The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics This 1000...

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1 Chapter 5: The 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics An Introduction This 1000 hp engine photo is courtesy of Bugatti automobiles. Motivating The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics • The 1 st law of thermodynamics alone does not predict the direction of a process, e.g. – Can a hot object naturally cool down to a temperature below its surrounding? – Can a hot mass return to its initial position by losing its internal energy? • The first law does not distinguish between reversible and irreversible processes • The 2 nd law can be used in conjunction with the 1 st law to determine the capability (e.g., max efficiency) of a process.
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2 Spontaneous Processes Objects spontaneously tend to cool Fluids move from higher to lower pressure environments spontaneously Objects spontaneously fall from elevated positions Spontaneous processes allows occur in a predictable direction, and have the potential to produce work Comments • A spontaneous process takes place on its own but its inverse would not take place spontaneously • There is an opportunity to develop work from an spontaneous process that otherwise would be lost (e.g., turbine, pulley) • If work is developed from s spontaneous process – What is the max theoretical limit – What factors would preclude its realization
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3 The Many Uses of the 2 nd Law
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lec5 - Chapter 5: The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics This 1000...

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