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Running head: PATHOPHARMACOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR ADVANCED1Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing PracticeJason Staggs RN, BSNWestern Governors University
PATHOPHARMACOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR ADVANCED2Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing PracticeA.Investigate Disease ProcessAccording to the American Heart Association, as many as 960,000 new cases of heart failure (HF) are diagnosed each year. Furthermore, it estimates there are approximately 6.5 mil-lion Americans over the age of twenty suffering from congestive heart failure (“American Heart Association Rise Above Heart Failure”, 2017). Additionally, the CDC reports half of the people diagnosed with HF will die within five years of diagnosis. HF costs the nation approximately $30.7 billion each year when accounting for the cost of health care services, medications, and missed work (“Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Fact Sheet”, 2016).Heart Failure occurs when the heart cannot pump enough oxygen and blood to support the body’s organs. The heart muscle is weakened by a heart attack or hypertension. Therefore, the heart cannot pump the blood needed by the organs which is defined as reduced cardiac out-put. This reduced cardiac output leads to a cascade of attempts by the body to compensate for the decreased cardiac output caused by the muscle injury. Heart failure can be characterized by many different methods including differentiating between diastolic and systolic heart failure or defining if the type of heart failure is right heart, left heart, or combined heart failure.A1. PathophysiologyPerhaps the easiest method to determine the type of heart failure a patient exhibits is to determine if the heart failure is diastolic or systolic heart failure. Once able to determine if the heart failure is diastolic or systolic, the practitioner can determine if the heart’s ejection fraction has been compromised which is the percentage of blood emptied from the heart with each beat ofthe heart. If the ejection fraction is less than forty percent, then the ejection fraction is abnormal and diagnostically relevant. If the ejection fraction is compromised, the patient is diagnosed with
PATHOPHARMACOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR ADVANCED3congestive heart failure(CHF), heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), or systolic heart failure. If the ejection fraction is preserved the heart failure is diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, many patients will experience some of the same symptoms depending on the progression of their disease. Left sided heart fail-ure is commonly the case in which the practitioner will see symptoms of systolic heart failure due to the backup of fluid caused by the weakened left ventricle. Therefore, one must under-stand the pathophysiology of heart failure in order to identify the type of heart failure and best treatment for patients with each type of heart failure.