PSYA02-Full-Book-Notes.docx - PSYA02 Full Book Notes...

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PSYA02 Full Book Notes Chapter 9: Intelligence Testing Measuring Intelligence Focus Questions: How have intelligence tests been misused in modern society? Why do we have the types of intelligence tests that we have? Leilani Muir: forced to be sterilized due to low IQ score Different Approaches to Intelligence Testing What IS intelligence? Is it getting good grades? Intelligence and Perception: Galton’s Anthropometric Approach Galton believed that because people learn about the world through their senses, those with superior sensory abilities would surely be more intelligent He created a set of tests around this idea Anthropometrics: methods of measuring physical and mental variation in humans Cattell took Galton’s tests and administered them to university students He found that the different sensory test scores were not correlated with each other Some people have better hearing than eyesight He found that scores on the sensory tests were not correlated with their university abilities Because of this, the approach was scrapped. Intelligence and Thinking: the c Binet Test Binet argued that intelligence should be indicated by more complex thinking processes, such as memory, attention, and comprehension Intelligence: the ability to think, understand, reason, and adapt to or overcome obstacles Binet and Simon developed a test to determine the abilities of children who might benefit from special education Binet believed that a child’s test score measured her mental age Mental age: the average intellectual ability score for children of a specific age Terman described the Stanford-Binet test (a test adapted for the US) as a test intended to measure innate levels of intelligence Binet’s intent was not this, and this is a pretty substantial difference Terman and Stern ended up developing IQ, which took mental age and divided it by chronological age, on a 100 point average scale. Take the difference between: Mental age of 7, 3 years behind others IQ of 70, 30 points below average Also, this approach makes no sense when considering adults
Deviation IQ: taken average test scores of people of the same age, with the average being set at 100 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Offers a Full Scale IQ, General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) Raven’s Progressive Matrices Developed to correct a cultural bias in intelligence tests Relies on visual pattern identification The Chequered Past of Intelligence Testing IQ and the Eugenics Movement Eugenics was all the rage and assumed that White Westerners were genetically superior, justifying their imposition of their values on other cultures Social Darwinism grew into eugenics Galton coined this term and believed intelligence to be an innate property He believed that eminence in families was a result of good genetics, explaining why wealth and other achievements concentrated in a few families These ideas, as well as the results of Native American, Mexican,

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