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Unformatted text preview: Food Microbiology and Food Safety Practical Approaches Jeffrey Farber Jackie Crichton O. Peter Snyder, Jr. Editors Retail Food Safety Food Microbiology and Food Safety Series Editor: Michael P. Doyle Food Microbiology and Food Safety Series The Food Microbiology and Food Safety series is published in conjunction with the International Association for Food Protection, a non-profit association for food safety professionals. Dedicated to the life-long educational needs of its Members, IAFP provides an information network through its two scientific journals (Food Protection Trends and Journal of Food Protection), its educational Annual Meeting, international meetings and symposia, and interaction between food safety professionals. Series Editor Michael P. Doyle, Regents Professor and Director of the Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, Griffith, GA, USA Editorial Board Francis F. Busta, Director, National Center for Food Protection and Defense, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Patricia Desmarchelier, Food Safety Consultant, Brisbane, Australia Jeffrey Farber, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Ottawa, ON, Canada David Golden, Professor of Microbiology, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Vijay Juneja, Supervisory Lead Scientist, USDA-ARS, Philadelphia, PA, USA More information about this series at Jeffrey Farber • Jackie Crichton O. Peter Snyder, Jr. Editors Retail Food Safety Editors Jeffrey Farber Bureau of Microbial Hazards Health Canada Ottawa, ON, Canada Jackie Crichton Consultant Pakenham, ON, Canada O. Peter Snyder, Jr. SnyderHACCP Roseville, MN, USA ISBN 978-1-4939-1549-1 ISBN 978-1-4939-1550-7 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-1550-7 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2014949135 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Contents 1 An Introduction to Retail Food Safety .................................................. Jeffrey Farber, Jackie Crichton, and Oscar P. Snyder, Jr. 1 2 Control of Pathogens at Retail ............................................................... G.K. Kozak, Jackie Crichton, and Jeffrey Farber 3 3 Potential Food Safety Risks: Total Store and by Department ............ Jackie Crichton 17 4 The Applications and Uses of GFSI-Benchmarked Food Safety Schemes in Relation to Retail ........................................... Lucia E. Anelich and Kevin P. Swoffer 37 Listeria monocytogenes, Listeriosis and Control Strategies: What the Retail Deli and Food Safety Manager Need to Know ......... Susan R. Hammons and Haley F. Oliver 43 5 6 Control of Foodborne Viruses at Retail ................................................ Jason Tetro 59 7 An Overview of Retail Food Hygiene in Europe .................................. Alec Kyriakides 81 8 Retail HACCP-Based Systems ............................................................... 133 Jackie Crichton 9 Sanitation and Sanitation Issues at Retail ............................................ 145 Thomas Ford and Amy Opper 10 Retail Food Handler Certification and Food Handler Training ......... 153 Oscar P. Snyder, Jr. v vi 11 Contents Retail Food Safety Risks for Populations of Different Races, Ethnicities, and Income Levels .............................................................. 177 Jennifer J. Quinlan Index ................................................................................................................. 191 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Retail Food Safety Jeffrey Farber, Jackie Crichton, and O. Peter Snyder, Jr. Retail is that step in the food supply chain just before the care and control of a product is handed over to the final customer or consumer. Retail food outlets take on a number of formats, shapes, and sizes and offer a wide array of products prepared and sold in a variety of formats using many different display methods. Products may originate from domestic suppliers or be imported. They may be sold in the manufacturers original package or they may be assembled, further prepared and/or packaged at store level. Retail is unique in that the majority of the workforce is made up of part-time workers. For many retail employees, this is their first job and/or something that they will do only for a short time, e.g., until they finish school, “find a real job.” Many retail outlets operate 24 h a day, 7 days a week. Retail is also unique in that customers/consumers have varying degrees of access to the food premises and to products being offered for sale (e.g., products sold bulk self-serve). All of these factors add to the complexity of ensuring food safety at retail. Food safety has long been a focus of the retail food industry and is increasingly being focused on by consumers and governments worldwide. In some instances the food purchased by the consumer will require further preparation, while in other cases it will be ready to eat. In all instances, the consumer expectation is that the J. Farber (*) Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 e-mail: [email protected] J. Crichton Consultant, 3062 – 9th Conc N., Pakenham, ON, Canada K0A 2X0 e-mail: [email protected] O.P. Snyder, Jr. SnyderHACCP, P.O. Box 13734; Roseville, MN 55113, USA e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014 J. Farber et al. (eds.), Retail Food Safety, Food Microbiology and Food Safety, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-1550-7_1 1 2 J. Farber et al. products they purchase are safe to consume as purchased or that they will be able to prepare the products in such a way that they will be safe to consume. Food safety at retail starts with good procurement practices and ends with good recall procedures that can be quickly implemented should a food safety issue occur. For the most part, all products sold at retail must be sourced from inspected suppliers. To assist in the delivery of safe food, retailers are increasingly relying on third-party verification of suppliers’ food safety systems/practices. In fact, many retailers now require that their suppliers, both domestic and import, be certified to a Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) benchmarked food safety scheme (see Chap. 4). One requirement of such certification schemes is increased traceability along the food supply chain. Basic traceability is “one up, one down.” This means that each entity along the supply chain knows where/from whom their product has been purchased and where/to whom it has been sold. However, retail does not typically have a record of to whom they have sold a product (i.e., the final customer or final consumer) except for a few companies/programs, e.g., club stores, customer loyalty programs. It is important to note that many customers/consumers do not wish companies to have access to their purchasing habits and that for companies to access such information via club cards or customer loyalty programs, customers/consumers must sign agreements allowing companies to access their purchasing information. However, it should be noted that having consumer loyalty programs has been very beneficial in helping to identify the source of foodborne outbreaks. Retail is a unique environment. The food processing procedures that occur at retail range from simple to complex and so do the food safety practices and procedures that need to be put in place. This book provides information ranging from the simple and hands-on, to the more scientific and complex. If the information provided causes you to recognize the need for, as well as prompts you to consider taking steps to initiate or improve upon further action food safety in the retail environment, it will have met its goal. Chapter 2 Control of Pathogens at Retail G.K. Kozak, Jackie Crichton, and Jeffrey Farber 2.1 Introduction The Public Health Agency of Canada estimates that each year roughly one in eight Canadians (or four million people) gets sick, with a domestically acquired foodborne illness (Thomas et al. 2013). There are 30 known pathogens that can cause foodborne illness (Thomas et al. 2013) and they are responsible for about 40 % of the foodborne illnesses in Canada. However, the remaining 60 % of the illnesses are caused by unspecified agents (Thomas et al. 2013). These unspecified agents were defined as: agents with insufficient data to estimate agent-specific burden; known agents not yet identified as causing foodborne illness; microbes, chemicals, or other substances known to be in food whose ability to cause illness is unproven, and agents not yet identified (Thomas et al. 2013). Each year, 31 major pathogens acquired in the USA are responsible for 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness, about 56,000 hospitalizations, and 1,300 deaths (Scallan et al. 2011). For those G.K. Kozak, M.Sc. (*) Evaluation Division, Food Directorate, Tunney’s Pasture, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 e-mail: [email protected] J. Crichton Consultant, 3062 – 9th Conc N, Pakenham, ON, K0A 2X0, Canada e-mail: [email protected] J. Farber Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9 Canada e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014 J. Farber et al. (eds.), Retail Food Safety, Food Microbiology and Food Safety, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-1550-7_2 3 4 G.K. Kozak et al. involved in food safety, the reduction in occurrence of foodborne illness is the number one priority. Retail stores associated with an outbreak can experience loss of clientele as well as bad publicity, both of which can have a devastating financial impact on the business. This chapter will outline the food safety risks specific to retail, as well as provide useful guidance to help prevent food contamination at various steps in food preparation, handling, and storage in a retail store. 2.2 2.2.1 Pathogens of Concern Bacteria Many episodes of foodborne illness are caused by bacteria. While some bacteria can be very beneficial in food industry such as in yogurt and dairy production, there are also harmful bacteria that are known to cause illness. Table 2.1 outlines the characteristics of some major foodborne pathogens. In Canada, Clostridium perfringens, nontyphodial Salmonella spp., Campylobacter, and Bacillus cereus have been identified as the top four bacterial agents causing illness (Thomas et al. 2013). In the USA, C. perfringens, non-typhodial Salmonella spp. Campylobacter and Staphylococcus aureus were among the top four illness causing microorganisms (CDC 2013), while in Europe, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Verotoxigenic E. coli, and Yersina are the most prevalent (European Food Safety Authority 2013). Most of the time, food contaminated with bacteria will smell, look, and taste normal to the consumer. It is impossible to determine the presence of harmful microorganisms by relying on your senses alone. Bacteria can contaminate food in a numbers of ways including through raw foods, contaminated water, soil, people, pests, air dust, dirt, etc. Food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria can make you ill in two main ways. Firstly, through bacterial infection, when the ingested live bacteria, such as Salmonella, multiply in your body to cause illness. Secondly, through foodborne intoxication which occurs when bacteria produce toxins in the food and then the food is ingested with preformed toxin in it. Examples of organisms foodborne intoxication would be Clostridium botulinum, S. aureus and B. cereus. 2.2.2 Viruses Although bacteria are responsible for many cases of foodborne illness, there are other biological hazards that can be responsible. One of these hazards are viruses, the smallest of all microorganisms. Viruses need to invade living human or animal cells to survive and, as such, they cannot grow or multiply in food. However, their Escherichia coli (O157) Raw or undercooked ground beef and beef products are the vehicles most often implicated, produce, dairy products Raw/inadequately pasteurized milk, cheeses (particularly soft cheeses), ice cream, raw vegetables, raw poultry and meats (all types), fermented raw meat sausages, hot dogs and deli meats, and raw and smoked fish and other seafood Most often meats, poultry, eggs, milk, and dairy products Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella nontyphi Food associated Raw poultry, raw meat Pathogen Campylobacter Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, headache, high fever, from 39° to 40 °C; lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pains and diarrhea or constipation; headache, achiness, loss of appetite Hemorrhagic colitis is characterized by severe cramping (abdominal pain), nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea that initially is watery, but becomes grossly bloody. In some cases, the diarrhea may be extreme, appearing to consist entirely of blood and occurring every 15–30 min. Fever typically is low grade or absent Symptoms Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting Develop fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and, sometimes, diarrhea. May spread to the nervous system, symptoms may include headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, and convulsions, abortion Table 2.1 Illness characteristics associated with major foodborne pathogens 3–4 but may range from 1 to 9 days 6–72 h Up to 70 days Onset time 2–5 days 2–9 days 2–7 days Days to several weeks Illness duration 2–10 days (continued) 10–100 cells As little as one cell >100 cfu/g Infectious dose 500 cells 2 Control of Pathogens at Retail 5 Imported fresh produce, such as raspberries, basil, and several varieties of lettuce Raw or improperly cooked oysters Any food touched by an infected food handler or from contact with an environmental source of oocysts Cyclospora Vibrio parahaemolyticus Cryptosporidium Norovirus Food associated Cold cuts and sandwiches, fruits and fruit juices, milk and milk products, vegetables, salads, shellfish, and iced drinks are commonly implicated in outbreaks Salad ingredients, fruits, and oysters Pathogen Hepatitis A Table 2.1 (continued) Symptoms usually present as acute-onset vomiting (often explosive); watery, nonbloody diarrhea with abdominal cramps and nausea Watery diarrhea, with frequent, sometimes explosive bowel movements. Other common symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal cramping and bloating, nausea and fatigue Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and bloody diarrhea Profuse, watery diarrhea, along with nausea, vomiting, and cramping. Fever can also accompany these symptoms. Symptoms Fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, hepatitis and often jaundice 4–90 h; mean of 17 h 3–5 days, up to 2 weeks 2–14 days (mean 1 week) 24 and 48 h Onset time 30 days (range 15–50 days) 2–4 days, but can last up to two weeks 2–6 days Days to months Symptoms generally persist for 12–60 h, with a mean of 24–48 h Illness duration Typically 1–2 weeks ID50 of 100 million cells 10–100 oocytes NA 1–10 particles Infectious dose 10–100 particles 6 G.K. Kozak et al. Food associated Has been isolated from root crops, lettuces, herbs, and strawberries irrigated with wastewater Symptoms Onset time Illness duration GI disease. In some people, the 1–3 weeks 2–6 weeks results may be more serious (severe diarrhea, dehydration, and loss of weight), and occasionally life-threatening Toxoplasma Meat can contain cysts; In 80–90 % of healthy humans, 5–23 days Several weeks, particularly pork, as well as infection is asymptomatic and 90 % sheep and goat meat clinical toxoplasmosis is rare. In the asymptomatic remaining 10–20 % cases, a viral-like febrile illness occurs with swollen lymph nodes, a rash, malaise, and ‘flu’ like symptoms; vertical transmission possible Adapted from (FDA 2012; Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) 2013; Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) 2013) Pathogen Giardia NA Infectious dose As few as 10 cysts 2 Control of Pathogens at Retail 7 G.K. Kozak et al. 8 presence on foods can cause serious illness. In fact, norovirus is the number one foodborne pathogen in Canada and the USA, while in Europe it is among the top three pathogens. Other viruses such as hepatovirus, astrovirus, and enterovirus and others have also been associated with foodborne illness (Vasickova et al. 2005). In addition, some viruses, e.g., norovirus, are highly infectious and can lead to secondary cases and widespread outbreaks (Vega et al. 2014). 2.2.3 Parasites Parasites are another biological organism that can cause foodborne illness. These organisms often have complicated life cycles, which can involve numerous hosts before they infect humans. With the increase in globalization, a growing number of foodborne parasites have emerged as new agents causing foodborne illness (Robertson et al. 2013). Recent work done by the FAO/WHO to prioritize foodborne parasites, ranked the top foodborne illness associated parasites, as follows; Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium (FAO 2012). 2.3 How Food Can Become Contaminated at Retail While food can become contaminated at any stage of the farm-to-fork continuum, this chapter will focus on the major sources of contamination which can occur at the retail level. The intrinsic factors which can affect pathogen survival are outlined in Table 2.2. Table 2.2 Intrinsic factors affecting the survival and growth of some foodborne bacterial pathogens Pathogen Campylobacter Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella (nontyphi) Temperature Optimum 42 °C, range 32–45 °C Optimum 30–37 °C, range −1.5 to 45 °C. 5.2–46.2 °C, optimum 35–43 °C pH Optimum 6.5–7.5, range 4.5–9.5 Optimum 6.5–7.5, range 4.0–9.6 Range 3.8–9.5 optimum, 7–7.5 Escherichia coli (O157) Optimum 37 °C, min 7–8 °C, max 46 °C Optimum 6–7, range 4.4–10.0 Vibrio parahaemolyticus 20–35 °C; it can grow at temperatures up to 41 °C Min minimum, Max maximum Optimum 7.8–8.6; range 4.8–11 Water activity (aw) Optimum growth aw = 0.997 Optimum growth aw = 0.90 Min 0.93 Max >0.99 Optimum 0.99 Optimum growth aw = 0.99 Min aw = 0.95 ...
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