Anatomy_and_physiology_of_pregnancy.ppt - Anatomy and physiology of pregnancy Pregnancy tests hCG(human chorionic gonadotropin*biochemical marker on

Anatomy_and_physiology_of_pregnancy.ppt - Anatomy and...

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Anatomy and physiology of pregnancy
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Pregnancy tests hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) *biochemical marker on which pregnancy tests based on *can be detected in blood as early as 6 days after conception Serum and urine tests accurate ELISA test most popular (5 minute results)
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Adaptation to pregnancy Physiologic changes R/T *hormones of pregnancy *mechanical pressures from uterus Signs of pregnancy *presumptive *probable *positive
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Signs of pregnancy Presumptive *felt by mother -fatigue -amenorrhea Probable *observed by examiner -Hegar’s sign -ballotment
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Signs of pregnancy Positive *signs evident in presence of fetus -FHT -visualization -palpate fetal movement
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Reproductive system and breasts Uterus enlarges *increased vascularity *dilation of blood vessels *7 weeks = hen’s egg *10 weeks = orange *12 weeks = grapefruit
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Reproductive system Pregnancy may show after 14 th week 22-24 weeks at umbilicus 38-40 weeks *fundal height decreases *fetus descends into pelvis (lightening)
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Early weeks of pregnancy Pelvic congestion and edema Cervix *softens *takes on blue color = Chadwick’s sign Six weeks gestation *lower uterine segment softens and is easily compressed = Hegar’s sign
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Braxton-Hicks contractions Often after 4 th month Irregular and painless May occur at intervals throughout pregnancy Facilitate uterine blood flow
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Uteroplacental blood flow Blood flow increases 20-fold Factors that can decrease flow *low-mean arterial pressure *uterine contractions *maternal position
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Cervical changes Softening begins 6 th week = Goodell’s sign *R/T increased vascularity Cervix bleeds easily when scraped
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Fetal movement May be as early as 16 weeks (quickening) *described as flutter *movement gradually increases in intensity and frequency
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Vagina and vulva Vaginal mucosa *thickens *connective tissue loosens Leukorrhea evidences *white-grey mucoid discharge *response to hormone stimulation
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  • Spring '10
  • Caroline Menard
  • early pregnancy

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