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Korean 50 Midterm Study GuideWinter 2016The midterm exam will be given during the regular class time on Thursday, February 4. Please arrive on time, as there is no additional time for late arrivals. As long as proper names are discernable, you will not be penalized for mis-Romanized names. I. ID questions (5 points each). Out of the following 25, there will be 10 for the exam. Answers should be brief, providing pertinent information (who, what where, when) and most importantly, the significance of each term/person/event in our understanding of Korean history. Full sentences are not required. (10 questions @ 5 points each=50 points) 1) The Three Kingdoms●50BCE to 668BCE●Considerable migration of people, cultures, and ideas ●Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla 고구려, 백제, 신라)Goguryeo 고구려(37-668 BCE)Baekje 백제(18-660 BCE)Silla 신라(57-936 BCE)Kaya (42-562)FounderChumong주몽- mythical originKing OnjoPark Hyokkose - mythical originKim Su Ro - mythical originCommon features- Selectively borrowed from China- Process of state building largely as indigenous development, due to China’s disunity- Buddhism as official state religion- Social stratification - Relative gender equality (Social status > gender) ●Koguryo고구려○First of the tribal leagues to mature into kingdom in 2nd century ○Bordered barbarians to North ○Had to defend itself since it was surrounded by neighboring countries ○Dominated by warrior aristocracy ●Baekje 백제○Fully developed by the reign of King Koi○southwestern portion of the peninsula■Closest ties to Japan■Buddhism’s paramount position in Paekche civilization■Dominated by warrior aristocracy and monarchy●Silla신라○Developed into a kingdom by the reign of King Naemul ○Unified 3 kingdoms■possible due to...(1) Stable and effective government (2) Good economic standing (taxation) to support military undertakings; (3) Geographical advantage; (4) Emergence of many able and energetic military leaders (Kim Chun chu & KimYu Shin)○Long lasting of 3 kingdoms but not necessarily most advanced○Developed later in social stratification, creation of centralized state, adoption of literacy○Its strength from 3 social& political institutions: Bone-rank(Kolp’um), Hwabaek(council of Notables) & Hwarang(Flower youths)■Bone-rank: selected families go up the rank
■Hwabaek: Check and balance system■Hwarang: institution aristocratic youth participate in group activities●Kaya 가야○independent confederate state, later absorbed by Silla 2) King Kwanggaet’o광개토대왕 (391-413)●Greater Expander of 고구려 Kingdom●conquered the vast lands of current Manchuria (가장 고구려의 땅이 컸던 때)○exploits in pushing the boundaries of Koguryo’s dominion in all directions3) Bone-Rank System 골품제도●One of the three social and political institutions●Stout social status system-- Selected families go up the rank●Silla method assigned a “bone rank” to people, based on their parentage, that determined their social status and , in turn, their spheres and manner of social interaction, marriage possibilities, tax and service obligations, and eligibility for bureaucratic office●