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Gomal University Journal of Research, 26(2), 45-62. 45 GUJR-Gomal University DIK KP Pakistan THEORIES OF JOB-SATISFACTION: GLOBAL APPLICATIONS & LIMITATIONS Abdul Sattar Khan,1Shadiullah Khan,2Allah Nawaz3& Qamar Afaq Qureshi Abstract Several theories have been proposed to view this attitude of job satisfaction in the organizational work environment. Human behavior is made of belief (cognition) and action (physical) therefore most of the theories either emphasize cognitive or prioritize action/behavior levels to be important in the employee‟s attitudes of motivation/satisfaction. Still another group of theories cover individual and group characteristics, attributes of the work environment, organizational and managerial context and broader social contexts of the organization as the determinants of job satisfaction. However, an analysis of all the leading theories suggests that these are neither contradictory nor replace one another rather all are complementary and supplementary in explaining different dimensions of the human motivation leading to job satisfaction. This paper is an attempt to synthesize the front line theories into a conceptual model wherein the respective contribution of each model is identified. INTRODUCTION Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal. Satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. Motivation implies a drive toward an outcome, and satisfaction is the outcome already experienced (Weihrich & Koontz, 1999:465). Job satisfaction is a general attitude, which is the result of many specific attitude in three areas such as job factors, individual or personal characteristics and other social and groups‟ relationship outside the job (Shajahan & Shajahan, 2004:116). When people join an organization, they bring with them certain drives and needs that affect their on the job performance. Sometimes these are immediately apparent, but often they not only are difficult to determine and satisfy but also vary greatly from one person to another. Understanding how needs create tensions which stimulate effort to perform and how effective performance brings the satisfaction of rewards is useful for managers (Newstrom, 2007:123).
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