NTR 450 Study Guide for Test 1Chapter 1What is the socio-ecological model?What is the difference between essential and nonessential nutrients and provide examples of each. -essential nutrients are nutrients the body can not manufacture. “essential nutrients: carbohydrates, certain amino acids such as histidine, Isoleucine and linoleic acid and alpa-linolenic acid (fatty acids)nonessential nutrients: are present in food and used by the body, but they do not have to be part of our diets. Cholesterol, creatine, and glucose are all examples. Define enrichment and fortification. What foods are enriched or fortified and with what nutrients? –Enrichment: refined grain products have added thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron– Fortified: addition of any other nutrient • Refined flour folic acid• Milk vitamin D• Low-fat and skim milk vitamins A & D • Some salt - iodine Describe dietary reference intakes (ULS, RDA, EARs, AIs).-DRI: general term, nutrient intake standards for healthy people 6Adequate Intakes (AIs) – “Tentative” RDAs– Used when scientific information is less conclusive –Use with greater care 6Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) – Levels of essential nutrients– Adequate for most healthy people– Decrease risk of certain chronic diseases– Intended to serve as a goal for daily intake by individuals 6Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) – Estimated values to meet requirements of half of thehealthy individuals in a group • 50% of subjects would not have their needs met – EARs are used to assess adequacy of intakes of population groups 6Upper limits of nutrients compatible with health– These are the limits that should not be exceeded–– No evidence of benefit for healthy individuals in consuming nutrients above the RDA or AI 6- know protein during pregnancy * Be able to calculate % daily value for different food components on a nutrition label.Be able to calculate calories from a nutrition facts panel.How is nutrition status assessed?
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