Guided Reading AMSCO chapter 9 (2).pdf - Name Class Period...

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Unformatted text preview: Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:____ Due Date:___/____/____ Guided Reading & Analysis: Sectionalism 1820-1860 Chapter 9- Sectionalism, pp 173-183 Reading Assignment: Ch. 9 AMSCO; If you do not have the AMSCO text, use chapter 16 of American Pageant and/or online resources such as the website, podcast, crash course video, chapter outlines, Hippocampus, etc. Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis using your noggin (thinking skills) with new knowledge gained from the reading. This guide, if completed in its entirety BOP (Beginning of Period) by the due date, can be used on the corresponding quiz as well as earn up to 10 bonus points. In addition, completed guides provide the student with the ability to correct a quiz for ½ points back! The benefits of such activities, however, go far beyond quiz help and bonus points. Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to process the information as they read/receive. This is an optional assignment. So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try. (Image captured from theguardian.com) Directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! Write Write (do not type) your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in INK! Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 4: Main Idea: The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes. Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them. Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. Section 1 Guided Reading, pp 173-183 As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. The North pp 173-176 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy Read the first two paragraphs on page 173. Why was the nation fragile? What is the key difference between the Northeast and the Northwest? What does Daniel Webster refer to in his quote at the top of the page? Explain the historical significance of Commonwealth v. Hunt. Consider broad context. Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South. The North… 1. 2. The Industrial Northeast… Are you using ink? Remember… no pencil! …The North Continued Key Concepts & Main Ideas Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. Global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing . Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets. Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low-skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest. The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations. Notes Analysis Organized Labor… Identify three reasons why improving working conditions was difficult. 1) 2) 3) Urban Life… Look at the chart on page 174. By 1860, how had economic development worsened sectionalism? African Americans… The two main reasons the Old Northwest (Ohio Valley) became closely connected to the Northeast were: 1) The Agricultural Northwest… 2) How did innovations impact agriculture and market connections? Agriculture… New Cities… List the causes of the surge in immigration. 1) Immigration… 2) 3) The North Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest. Notes Analysis Irish… Compare and contrast the Irish and German immigrants. Half of all the immigrants: almost 2 million, came from Ireland. These Irish immigrants were mostly tenant farmers driven from their homeland by potato crop failures and a devastating famine in the 1840s. Arrived with limited interest in farming, few special skills, and little money. Faced strong discrimination because of their Roman Catholic religion. Faced with limited opportunities, they congregated for mutual support in the northern cities (Boston, Philadelphia, and New York) where they had first landed. Entered local politics. They organized their fellow immigrants and joined the Democratic party. Progress was difficult but steady. For example, the Irish were initially excluded from joining New York City's Democratic organization, Tammany Hall. But by the 1850s they had secured jobs and influence, and by the 1880s they controlled this party organization. Similarities: Differences: Germans… Both economic hardships and the failure of democratic revolutions in 1848 caused more than 1 million Germans to seek refuge in the United States in the late 1840s and the 1850s. Most German immigrants had at least modest means as well as considerable skills as farmers and artisans. Moving westward in search of cheap, fertile farmland, they established homesteads throughout the Old Northwest and generally prospered. At first their political influence was limited. As they became more active in public life, many strongly supported public education and staunchly opposed slavery. How did immigration impact northern, free blacks? (see the top of page 175) Nativists… Many native-born Americans were alarmed by the influx of immigrants, fearing that the newcomers would take their jobs and also weaken the culture of the Anglo majority. The nativists (those reacting most strongly against the foreigners) were Protestants who distrusted the Roman Catholicism practiced by the Irish and many of the Germans. In the 1840s, opposition to immigrants led to sporadic rioting in the big cities and the organization of a secret antiforeign society, the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. Society turned to politics in the early 1850s, nominating candidates for office as the American party, or Know-Nothing party. Antiforeign feeling faded in importance as North and South divided over slavery prior to the Civil War. How is this wave of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s similar to or different from our modern wave of immigrants? (Other Context) 2. The south, pp 177-181 Key Concepts & Main Ideas As over-cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution. Notes Analysis The South… Look at the maps on page 177. What do these maps reveal about the growth of agriculture and industry in the first half of the 19th century? The states that permitted slavery formed a distinctive region, the South. By 1861, the region included 15 states, all but four of which (Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri) seceded and joined the Confederacy. Agriculture and King Cotton… Agriculture was the foundation of the South's economy, even though by the 1850s small factories in the region were producing approximately 15 percent of the nation's manufactured goods. Tobacco, rice, and sugarcane were important cash crops, but these were far exceeded by the South's chief economic activity: the production and sale of cotton. The development of mechanized textile mills in England, coupled with Eli Whitney's cotton gin, made cotton cloth affordable, not just in Europe and the United States, but throughout the world. Originally, the cotton was grown almost entirely in two states, South Carolina and Georgia, but as demand and profits increased, planters moved westward into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. New land was constantly needed, for the high cotton yields required for profits quickly depleted the soil. By the 1850s, cotton provided two-thirds of all U.S. exports and linked the South and Great Britain. "Cotton is king" What was the chief economic connection between south and north? Slavery, the “Peculiar Institution” … Wealth in the South was measured in terms of land and slaves. Slaves were treated as a form of property, subject to being bought and sold. Some whites were sensitive about how they treated the other humans that they referred to slavery as "that peculiar institution." In colonial times, people justified slavery as an economic necessity, but in the 19th century, apologists for slavery mustered historical and religious arguments to support their claim that it was good for both slave and master. The South Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas As over-cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies. Enslaved and free African Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status. Analysis Population… Look at the map on page 179. How was slavery increasing despite importation being banned in 1809? The cotton boom was largely responsible for a fourfold increase in the number of slaves, from 1 million in 1800 to nearly 4 million in 1860. Most of the increase came from natural growth, although thousands of Africans were also smuggled into the South in violation of the 1808 law against importing slaves. In parts of the Deep South, slaves made up as much as 75 percent of the total population. Fearing slave revolts, southern legislatures added increased restrictions on movement and education to their slave codes. Economics… Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution. The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth. Notes Slaves were employed doing whatever their owners demanded of them. Most slaves labored in the fields, but many learned skilled crafts or worked as house servants, in factories, and on construction gangs. Many slaves were sold from the Upper South to the cotton-rich Deep South of the lower Mississippi Valley. By 1860, the value of a field slave had risen to almost $2 000. One result of the heavy capital investment in slaves was that the South had much less capital than the North to undertake industrialization. What do Denmark Vessey and Nat Turner have in common with the leaders of the colonial era Stono Rebellion? Slave Life… Motivation… Impact of rebellions… Some slaves were humanely treated, while others were routinely beaten. All suffered from being deprived of their freedom. Families could be separated at any time by an owner's decision to sell a wife, a husband, or a child. Women were vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Enslaved African Americans maintained a strong sense of family and of religious faith. Resistance… Slaves contested their status through a range of actions, primarily work slowdowns, sabotage, and escape. There were a few major slave uprisings. One was led by Denmark Vesey in 1822 and another by Nat Turner in 1831. The revolts were quickly and violently suppressed, but even so, they had a lasting impact. They gave hope to enslaved African Americans, drove southern states to tighten already strict slave codes, and demonstrated to many the evils of slavery. Revolts polarized the country by making slaveholders more defensive about slavery and nonslaveholders more critical of the institution. Free African Americans… By 1860, as many as 250,000 African Americans in the South were not slaves. They were free citizens (even though, as in the North, racial prejudice restricted their liberties). A number of slaves had been emancipated during the American Revolution. Some were mulatto children whose white fathers had decided to liberate them. Others achieved freedom on their own, when permitted, through self-purchase Most of the free southern blacks lived in cities where they could own property. By state law, they were not equal with whites, were not permitted to vote, and were barred from entering certain occupations. Constantly in danger of being kidnapped by slave traders, they had to show legal papers proving their free status. They remained in the South for various reasons. Some wanted to be near family members who were still in bondage; others believed the South to be home and the North to offer no greater opportunities. White Society… Southern whites observed a rigid hierarchy among themselves. Aristocratic planters lived comfortably at the top of society while poor farmers and mountain people struggled at the bottom. Aristocracy… Why did approximately half of free blacks choose to remain in the south when many northern states had outlawed slavery? To what extent did Southern society constitute a social hierarchy? Using the illustration of a pyramid, explain how society was organized in the South. Include free blacks as well as the groups outlined on page 180. Members of the South's small elite of wealthy planters owned at least 100 slaves and at least 1,000 acres. The planter aristocracy maintained its power by dominating the state legislatures of the South and enacting laws that favored the large landholders' economic interests. Farmers… The vast majority of slaveholders owned fewer than 20 slaves and worked only several hundred acres. Southem white farmers produced the bulk of the cotton crop, worked in the fields with their slaves, and lived as modestly as farmers of the North. Poor Whites… 3/4s of the South's white population owned no slaves. They could not afford the rich river-bottom farmland controlled by the planters, and many lived in the hills as subsistence farmers. These "hillbillies" or "poor white trash," as they were derisively called by the planters, defended the slave system, thinking that some day they too could own slaves and that at least they were superior on the social scale to someone (slaves). Mountain People… A number of small farmers lived in frontier conditions in isolation from the rest of the South, along the slopes and valleys of the Appalachian and Ozark mountains. Disliked the planters and their slaves. During the Civil War, many (including a future president, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee) would remain loyal to the Union. Cities.. Because the South was primarily an agricultural region, there was only a limited need for major cities. New Orleans was the only southern city among the nation's 15 largest in 1860 (it was fifth, after New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston). Cities such as Atlanta, Charleston, Chattanooga, and Richmond were important trading centers, but had relatively small populations in comparison to those of the North. How much social mobility was there? The South Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution. Notes Analysis Southern Thought… Sir Walter Scott was a favorite author of many elite southerners. He wrote many books of chivalry and feudal society that plantation elite identified with. Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and the South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the U.S. and many state governments continued to restrict African Americans’ citizenship possibilities. As cotton became the basis of its economy, slavery became the focus of its political thought. White southerners felt increasingly isolated and defensive about slavery, as northerners grew hostile toward it, and as Great Britain, France, and other European nations outlawed it altogether. Code of Chivalry… Dominated by the aristocratic planter class, the agricultural South was largely a feudal society. Southern gentlemen ascribed to a code of chivalrous conduct, which included a strong sense of personal honor, the defense of womanhood, and paternalistic attitudes toward all who were deemed inferior, especially slaves Education… The upper class valued a college education for their children. Acceptable professions for gentlemen were limited to farming, law, the ministry, and the military. For the lower classes, schooling beyond the early elementary grades was generally not available. To reduce the risk of slave revolts, slaves were strictly prohibited by law from receiving any instruction in reading and writing. Religion… The slavery question affected church membership. Partly because they preached biblical support for slavery, both Methodist and Baptist churches gained in membership in the South while splitting in the 1840s with their northern brethren. The Unitarians, who challenged slavery, faced declining membership and hostility. Catholics and Episcopalians took a neutral stand on slavery, and their numbers declined in the South. Ac...
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