Unformatted text preview: Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:____ Due Date:___/____/____ Guided Reading & Analysis: The Age of Jackson, 1824-1844
Chapter 10- Era of the Common Man pp 191-200
Ch. 10 AMSCO; If you do not have the AMSCO text, use chapter 13 of American Pageant and/or online resources
such as the website, podcast, crash course video, chapter outlines, Hippocampus, etc. Purpose:
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Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to process the information as they read/receive.
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3. 4. Pre-Read:
Skim: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter.
Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions.
Get a feel for the content you are about to read.
Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and
people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading
guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read!
Write (do not type) your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in INK! (image capturerd from motherjones.com) Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 4:
Main Idea: The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes.
Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans
sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.
Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional
identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.
Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the
nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. Section 1 Connecting the Era of Good Feelings to the Age of Jackson
Read the summary below. Highlight main ideas.
The War of 1812 ended many of the problems that had plagued the United States since the Revolution. The nation’s independence was confirmed. The long war
between Britain and France was over, and with it the need for America to maintain difficult neutrality. The war had convinced Democratic-Republicans that, for the
nation’s security, they must protect American industry through tariffs — taxes on imported goods. The Democratic (or Jeffersonian) Republicans even chartered a
new national bank to control the nation’s supply of money, something they had vigorously opposed only twenty years before. The Federalist Party, meanwhile, had
discredited itself through its opposition to the war (Hartford Convention & Resolutions). As the Jeffersonian Republicans co-opted Federalist positions, the
Federalist Party withered away and became essentially extinct outside of New England.
James Monroe presided over the so-called “Era of Good Feelings,” but one-party rule masked serious differences of opinion.
In the elections of 1816, the first after the war’s end, the Republicans took complete control of the federal government. James Monroe succeeded James Madison
as President, and the Jeffersonian Republicans won 146 of 185 seats (78%) in the House of Representatives. By Monroe’s second term in office — which he won
almost unanimously — the Federalists were reduced to only 4 seats in the U.S. Senate. Monroe’s administration became known as the “Era of Good Feelings”
because there was so little opposition to him or to his policies. Election of 1824…But this one-party system masked real differences in opinion. In 1824, four candidates were nominated to succeed Monroe as
President, all calling themselves Democratic-Republicans: the war hero Andrew Jackson, Speaker of the House Henry Clay, Secretary of State John Quincy
Adams (pictured), and Secretary of the Treasury William Crawford. None of the candidates won a majority of the electoral vote, and so election was decided by the
House of Representatives. Clay had great influence as Speaker of the House, and he threw his support to Adams — some said, in exchange for Adams’ promise to
make Clay his Secretary of State. Jackson had won the most electoral votes and the greatest share of the popular vote, and his supporters, who had expected him to
be confirmed by the House as President, called this partnership between Adams and Clay a “corrupt bargain.”
During Adams’ administration, his supporters, who included many former Federalists, began to call themselves “National Republicans” to show their support for a
strong national government that would promote commerce, support education, and fund roads and canals. But Adams was not particularly popular. In contrast,
Jackson was extremely popular, having won national fame as hero of the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812 and later in wars against American Indians in
Florida. He was also backed by a well-orchestrated political organization. Jackson’s followers formed the Democratic Party, claiming to be the true successors of
Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party. Like their predecessors, the Democrats believed in small, decentralized government. Section 2 Guided Reading, pp 191-200
As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left
column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. Jacksonian Democracy pp 191-194
Key Concepts &
The United States
developed the world’s
first modern mass
celebrated a new
national culture, while
Americans sought to
define the nation’s
democratic ideals and to
reform its institutions to
transformation to a
continued debates over
federal power, the
the federal government
and the states, the
authority of different
branches of the federal
government, and the
individual citizens. Notes Analysis Jacksonian Democracy… Read the first paragraph on page 191.
List the three competing viewpoints of
Jackson and the emergence of popular
politics. The Rise of a Democratic Society…
Visitors to the United States in the 1830s, were amazed by the informal manners and democratic attitudes of Americans. In
hotels, under the American Plan, men and women from all classes ate together at common tables. On stagecoaches,
steamboats, and later in railroad cars, there was also only one class for passengers. European visitors could not distinguish
between classes in the United States.Equality was becoming the governing principle of American society.Among the white
majority in American society, people shared a belief in the principle of equality(more precise: equality of opportunity for white
men.) Ignored the oppression and discrimination of African Americans. Equal opportunity would allow a young white man of
humble beginnings to rise natural talent allowed. Hero of the age was the "self-made man". No belief in the "self-made woman,"
until the end of the 1840S, when feminists would take up the theme of equal rights and insist that it should be applied to both
women and men. Politics of the Common Man… 1. 2. Between 1824 and 1840 politics moved into lower and middle class homes. Several factors contributed to the spread of
democracy, including new suffrage laws, changes in political parties and campaigns, improved education, and increases in
newspaper circulation. 3.
Universal Male Suffrage…
Western states newly admitted to the Union: Indiana (1816), Illinois (1818), and Missouri (1821):adopted state constitutions that
allowed all white males to vote and hold office. They omitted any religious or property qualifications for voting. Eastern states
later began eliminating such restrictions. Result: throughput country all white men could vote regardless of social class or
religion. Political offices could be held by people in the lower and middle ranks of society. Party Nominating Conventions…
Past: Candidates nominated by legislators or by "King Caucus":a closed-door meeting of a political party's leaders in Congress.
Common citizens had no opportunity to participate. In 1830's caucuses were replaced by nominating conventions. Party
politicians and voters gathered in a large meeting hall to nominate the party's candidates. Anti-Masonic party: first to hold such a
nominating convention. This method was more open to popular participation=more democratic. In what ways did Jacksonian Democracy
differ from the original republicanism of
the Framer’s generation?
1. Popular Election of the President…
In the presidential election of 1832, only South Carolina used the old system in which the state legislature chose the electors
for president. All other states had adopted the more democratic method of allowing the voters to choose a state's slate of
presidential electors. 2. Two-Party System…
The popular election of presidential electors—and, in effect, the president—had important consequences for the two-party
system. Campaigns for president now had to be conducted on a national scale. To organize these campaigns, candidates
needed large political parties. 3. Rise of Third Parties…
While only the large national parties (the Democrats and the Whigs) could hope to win the presidency, other political parties also
emerged. The Anti-Masonic party and the Workingmen's party, reached out to groups of people who previously had shown little
interest in politics. The Anti-Masons attacked the secret societies of Masons and accused them of belonging to a privileged,
antidemocratic elite. To what extent were these differences
signs of improving American democracy? More Elected Offices…
During the Jacksonian era, a much larger number of state and local officials were elected to office, instead of being appointed,
as in the past. This change gave the voters more voice in their government and also tended to increase their interest in
participating in elections. One piece of evidence supporting your
answer: Popular Campaigning…
Candidates for office directed their campaigns to the interests and prejudices of the common people. Politics also became a
form of local entertainment. Campaigns of the 1830s and 1840s featured parades of floats and marching bands and large rallies
in which voters were treated to free food and drink. The negative side to the new campaign techniques was that in appealing to
the masses, candidates would often resort to personal attacks and ignore the issues. A politician, for example, might attack an
opponent's "aristocratic airs" and make him seem unfriendly to "the common man."
One piece of evidence supporting the opposing view: Spoils System and Rotation of Officeholders…
Winning government jobs became the lifeblood of party organizations. At the national level, President Jackson believed in
appointing people to federal jobs (as postmasters, for example) strictly according to whether they had actively campaigned for
the Democratic party. Any previous holder of the office who was not a Democrat was fired and replaced with a loyal Democrat.
This practice of dispensing government jobs in return for party loyalty was called the spoils system because of a comment that,
in a war, victors seize the spoils, or wealth, of the defeated.
In addition, Jackson believed in a system of rotation in office. By limiting a person to one term in office he could then appoint
some other deserving Democrat in his place. Jackson defended the replacement and rotation of officeholders as a democratic
reform. "No man," he said, "has any more intrinsic claim to office than another." Both the spoils system and the rotation of
officeholders affirmed the democratic ideal that one man was as good as another and that ordinary Americans were capable of
holding any government office. These beliefs also helped build a strong two-party system. Are you using ink? Remember… no pencil!
2. Jackson Versus Adams, pp193-194
Key Concepts &
transformation to a
the states, the
of the federal
the rights and
individual citizens. Notes Analysis Jackson Versus Adams… Before answering the questions for this section, turn to page 199200 and read “Historical Perspectives.” Political change in the Jacksonian era began several years before Jackson moved into the
White House as president. In the controversial election in 1824, Jackson won more popular
and electoral votes than any other candidate, but he ended up losing the election. To what extent was the election of 1828 a “revolution?”
Traditional View… The Election of 1824…
The Era of Good Feelings ended in political bad feelings in 1824, the year of a bitterly contested and divisive
presidential election. By then, the old congressional caucus system for choosing presidential candidates had
broken down. As a result, four candidates of the Democratic-Republican party of Jefferson campaigned for
the presidency: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson. Among voters in
states that counted popular votes Jackson won. Because the vote was split four ways, he lacked a majority in
the electoral college as required by the Constitution. Therefore, the House of Representatives had to choose
a president from among the top three candidates. Henry Clay used his influence in the House to provide
John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts with enough votes to win the election. When President Adams
appointed Clay his secretary of state, Jackson and his followers charged that the decision of the voters had
been foiled by secret political maneuvers. Angry Jackson supporters accused Adams and Clay of making a "
corrupt bargain." Opposing Whig View… Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.’s view… Contemporary historians… President John Quincy Adams…
Adams further alienated the followers of Jackson when he asked Congress for money for
internal improvements, aid to manufacturing, and even a national university and an
astronomical observatory. Jacksonians viewed all these measures as a waste of money and
a violation of the Constitution. Most significantly, in 1828, Congress patched together a new
tariff law, which generally satisfied northern manufacturers but alienated southern planters.
Southerners denounced it as a "tariff of abominations." Recent historians… Which election was a more significant “revolution” in American politics, 1800
or 1828? Explain your view. The Revolution of 1828…
Adams sought reelection in 1828. But the Jacksonians were now ready to use the discontent
of southerners and westerners and the new campaign tactics of party organization to
sweep "Old Hickory" (Jackson) into office. Going beyond parades and barbecues, Jackson's
party resorted to smearing the president and accusing Adams' wife of being born out of
wedlock. Supporters of Adams retaliated in kind, accusing Jackson's wife of adultery. The
mudslinging campaign attracted a lot of interest and voter turnout soared.
Jackson won handily, carrying every state west of the Appalachians. His reputation as a war
hero and man of the western frontier accounted for his victory more than the positions he
took on issues of the day. Defend your answer with three pieces of specific historical evidence.
3. 3. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson, pp 195-197
Key Concepts &
transformation to a
over federal power,
between the federal
government and the
states, the authority
of different branches
of the federal
government, and the
individual citizens. Notes Analysis The Presidency of Andrew Jackson… Support or refute Andrew Jackson’s claim that Indian removal
was done in the best interest of American Indians. Jackson was a different kind of president from any of his predecessors. A strong leader, he dominated politics for
eight years and became a symbol of the emerging working class and middle class. Jackson gained fame as an
Indian fighter and as hero of the Battle of New Orleans, and came to live in a fine mansion in Tennessee as a
wealthy planter and slave owner. He was the first president since Washington to be without a college education.
He could be described as an extraordinary ordinary man. This self-made man drew support from every social
group and every section of the country. Presidential Power…
Jackson presented himself as the representative of all the people and the protector of the common man against abuses of power
by the rich and the privileged. He was a frugal Jeffersonian, who opposed increasing federal spending and the national debt.
Jackson interpreted the powers of Congress narrowly and therefore vetoed more bills—12—than all six preceding presidents
combined. For example, he vetoed the use of federal money to construct the Maysville Road, because it was wholly within one
state, Kentucky. Rival= Henry Clay. Jackson's closest advisers were a group known as his "kitchen cabinet," who did not belong to
his official cabinet. Appointed cabinet had less influence on policy than under earlier presidents. One piece of evidence supporting your answer: One piece of evidence supporting the opposing view: Peggy Eaton Affair…
Peggy O'Neale Eaton was the wife of Jackson's secretary of war. Target of malicious gossip by other cabinet
wives, like Jackson's recently deceased wife had been in the 1828 campaign. When Jackson tried to force the
cabinet wives to accept Peggy Eaton socially, most of the cabinet resigned. This controversy contributed to the
resignation of Jackson's vice president, John C. Calhoun, a year later. For remaining loyal during this crisis,
Martin Van Buren of New York was chosen as vice president for Jackson's second term. How did the death of Rachel Jackson impact the President? The Presidency of Andrew Jackson Continued…
& Main Ideas Notes Resistance to initiatives for
democracy and inclusion
included restrictive antiIndian policies.
Supreme Court decisions
sought to assert federal power
over state laws and the
primacy of the judiciary in
determining the meaning of
The nation’s transformation to
a more participator...
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