Soc 1305BradshawReview SheetCumulative and Stratification From Exam 11.Summarize the basic tenets of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection (it includes three principles and one mechanism). Variation, heredity, and selectionMechanism = the struggle for existence2.Review the various agents of socialization in the lives of human beings. Family, peers, school, media, religion, and the law3.Be able to summarize the key theories of social influence: attachment theory, social learning theory, operant conditioning, structural-functionalism, conflict theory, theories of culture and norms, and research on social pressure. Attachment theorySecure attachment= feeling love, approval, closeness and warmth toward attachment figureInsecure attachment= attachment figures are perceived as consistently cold, distant, and unreliableAnxious attachment=feelings of inconsistent and confusion; attachment figures are perceived as warm, loving, and reliable at certain times, and cold, distant and unreliable at other timesSocial learning theory: many social behaviors occur even in the absence of rewards and punishment; we learn from observing othersEvidence- the bobo doll experienceOperant conditioning: type of conditioning in which an individual’s behavior is modified by its consequencesPositive reinforcement= giving something pleasant to increase behavior (getting money for good grades)Negative reinforcement= taking something unpleasant to increase behavior (car beeping stops when you buckle your seatbelt)Positive punishment= giving something unpleasant to decrease the behavior (puts soap in mouth for dirty language)Negative punishment= taking something pleasant away to decrease the behavior (phone taken away for bad grades)Structural-functionalism: complex structure of how society also functions to regulate our behaviorConflict theory: emphasizes how social inequalities, domination, power, and conflict lead to differences in behavior; people on the top look down on those on the bottomTheories of culture and normsResearch on social pressure4.Think about how evolutionary theory, the various agents of socialization, and the theories of social influence might help us understand all of the topics examined since Exam 1: education; income; wealth; gender / sex; race / ethnicity; conformity, obedience, and authority.Stratification5.Describe trends in educational attainment over the last 70 years or so for the entire United States population, and for women and men separately.The number of people with only elementary or high school education has significantly dropped and those with high school and college diplomas has increased.
6.Summarize trends in income inequality in the United States over the past century, and offer several explanations for these trends. Also, be able to describe trends in the minimum wage over the last several decades.
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- Spring '08